The Mayan’s, 2012 and ‘Error in Time’

Votan’s Warning
Pacal Votan, a 7th Century Mayan prophet, known as ‘Time’s Special Witness’ warned that humanity must return to ‘living in natural time’. According to him, and others from the Classic Mayan period, the age in which we now live would be characterised by gross materialism, it’s root lying in a distortion of our proper relationship with time, a so-called ‘error in time’.
But how did we become so alienated from natural time and why do we credit the Classic Maya with authority on these matters? Before looking at that we need to understand the importance of time and its relationship to the cosmology of the Mayans.

The 26,000 year cycle – A widespread concept
The overarching cycle which informs the Mayan calendrical system lasts 26,000 years and is said to preside over a period of evolution. The importance of this cycle is not confined to the Mayans; the Sumerians, Chaldeans, Hopi, Tibetans and Egyptions also used it and it coincides with the period of our sun’s orbit around Alcyone, the central star of the Pleiades. In addition the precession of the equinoxes (whereby the sun appears to move backwards through each astrological sign, giving rise to the astrological ages) also lasts 26,000 years (2,152 years per sign).
There is disagreement between various Mayan and Hopi sources over whether this great cycle comes to an end on Dec 12 2012 or not. The Living Maya Timekeepers of Guatemala and the Hopi believe not but the Classic Maya believed this was indeed the case and the once in 26,000 year alignment between our sun and the galactic centre seems to support their calculations. Nevertheless there is consensus that this precise date does mark the end of one world age, or creation cycle, and the beginning of another.

13 Aug 3113 bc – Beginning of a New World Age
The 26,000 year cycle was divided by the Mayans into five lesser cycles of 5,125 years each. One of the great reasons for the excitement of 21 Dec 2012 is that it marks the culmination of such an age. The 13 Aug 3113 bc may seem an arbitrary date on the Gregorian calendar but in Mayan notation it looks much more interesting,, exactly the same as the 21 Dec 2012.
But what is the evidence for 3113 bc as the beginning of a major creation cycle? Well, the following events, all dated around 3000 bc have been cited:
The creation of the first known city (Uruk)
The creaton of the 1st Egytian dynasty
The formation of the Kali Yuga, foundation of the Hindu and Buddhist calendars
The Sumerian division of time into 60 minute cycles and the division of circles into 360 degrees

The Long Count
You may have wondered of the significance of the number 13. Well, the world ages were further divided into thirteen Baktun cycles, each lasting 394 years. In 1618 we entered the last Baktun cycle of the present world age at and, according to Votan and the Classic Maya of the ninth Baktun cycle (435-830 ad), a cycle of great transformation.

The Aztec Calendar and the Age of Earth
The Classic Maya disappeared after the ninth Baktun, retreating from the war and sacrifice brought by the Tultec and some believe that their prophecies were their special destiny for humankind. They left us the Aztec Calendar (or MesoAmerican Sun Stone) which told of the elements which presided over each world age and brought about their destruction. The previous age was associated with water and it is tempting to see its destruction in term of the universal flood myths. According to this source, the present age is that of Earth (caban in Mayan, Ollin in Aztec) and and is associated with movement, shift, evolution, earhquake and synchronicity among other concepts.

Will the world end?
On a personal note, I hope not because my birthday is on the 22nd December. However, while some people have naturally looked on the date with trepidation, perhaps fearing nuclear holocaust, massive geological cataclysms and the like, many people see the transition to come as more profound than that. In fact, the syllable ‘Ol’ in the Aztec ‘Ollin’ means consciousness.
In addition the Living Maya Timekeepers of Guatemala and the Hopi see us as moving into the fifth world age of the 26,000 year period, characterised by peace.
However, the Classic Maya and Votan cannot be ignored, especially when our ‘error in time’ seems to coincide so accurately with the commencement of this last Baktun cycle. This includes the worldwide adoption of the 12 month Gregorian calendar and, in 1600, the invention of the modern mechanical 12 hour clock, both having become our absolute points of temporal reference. Perhaps, as 2012 gets ever nearer, we should all begin to pay more attention to our internal cycles and the rhythms of nature and overcome the ‘time of great forgetting’ that, according to the master timekeepers of the Maya, have led us so deep into materialism.

Thirteen Baktun Wave Harmonic of History
Entry into the new timespace has everything to do with a galactic beam—a higher frequency time wave that is emanated from the galactic core. All of history is condensed within a galactic beam that we are now passing out of. This particular type is a 5,125-year beam; its purpose is to accelerate human activity around the planet. This acceleration is called recorded history. This 5,125-year beam is nested within a 26,000 year beam, which is nested in a 104,000-year beam. These all climax in the Harmonic Convergence of 2012.
The galactic beam information forms the basic premise of The Mayan Factor, particularly the 5,125-year/13 baktun cycle or the wave harmonic of history. According to The Mayan Factor, the (long count) measure of 1,872,000 days, 13 baktuns, 260 katuns, 5,125 years 5200 tuns, is actually the measure of a particular synchronization beam. This Great Cycle is the measurement of this planetary passage through a time beam that is 5,125 years wide from August 13, 3113 BC to December 21, 2012.

The Thirteen Baktuns
1. Baktun 0 (=13). Baktun of the Star Planting. 3113-2718 B.C.
Entry of Earth into Galactic Synchronization Beam. Planting of “star-transmissions” of the galactic league among peoples across the planet. Consolidation of upper and lower Egypt, 3100 B.C. Expansion of Sumeria, 3000 B.C., Construction of Stonehenge begun, 2800 B.C.

2. Baktun 1. Baktun of the Pyramid. 2718-2324 B.C.
Contstruction/activation of Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt, 2700-2600 B.C., marks anchoring of planet light body. Spread of Sumerian civilization, Akkad and Ur, and development of bronze. Beginning of Harappa, Indus civilization. Beginning of settled agricultural life, China, Mesoamerica, Andes.

3. Baktun 2. Baktun of the Wheel. 2324-1930 B.C.
Full establishment of wheel, initiation of transport technology and cyclical thought, written codes of law, and metallurgical technology in Mesopotamia. Sargon and first Babylonian empire. Beginnings of chariot warfare, territorial imperialism. Era of legendary emperors, China. Establishment of Minoan civilization, Crete.

4. Baktun 3. Baktun of the Sacred Mountain. 1930-1536 B.C.
Middle and New Kingdom in Egypt; relocation of center to Sacred Mountain of the West, Valley of the Kings, marks decision of Egyptians to perpetuate dynastic rule, consolidates pattern of defensive territorialism as norm for civilized life. Waves of invaders—Hittites, Aryans; destruction of Minoan, Indus civilizations.

5. Baktun 4. Baktun of the House of Shang. 1536-1141 B.C.
Establishment of Shang Dynasty, China, enunciation of yin/yang doctrine, advanced bronze metallurgy and pattern of Chinese civilization. Beginnings of Vedic civilization, India. Emergence of Chavin civilization, Andes, and Olmecs, Mesoamerica, Akhenaton, Egypt; Abraham and Moses, Israel; Hittite consolidation, Mesopotamia.

6. Baktun 5. Baktun of the Imperial Seal. 1141-747 B.C.
Babylonian-Assyrian empires. Iron weaponry and war machines. Rise of Mycenean Greeks in Mediterranean, sack of Troy, Chou Dynasty, China, emergence of I Ching. Spread of Olmec culture throughout Mesoamerica. Horse used for warfare, pattern of militaristic imperial rule and dynastic succession established as norm for civilized life on planet.

7. Baktun 6. Baktun of the Mind Teachings. 747-353 B.C.
Period of first wave of galactic Mayans in Mesoamerica. Persian Empire. Rise of philosophical individualistic thought supplanting earlier collective forms. Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle in Greece; six schools of Vedic thought, Mahavira and Buddha, India; Lao Tzo, Confucious, Chuang Tzu in China. Construction of Monte Alban, Mexico, beginnings of Mayan calendar systems.

8. Baktun 7. Baktun of the Anointed One. 353 B.C.-A.D. 41.
Hellenestic civilization, Alexander the Great; Rise of Rome, beginning of Roman Empire; Celts in Europe, advanced iron technology; Warring States’ consolidation of China by Ch’in Huang Ti, beginnings of Han Dynasty, Great Wall of China; spread of Buddhism as cosmolopolitan religion from India to Central Asia. Jesus Christ, gnostic religions of Middle East; diffusion of Olmecs and beginning of Teotihuacan.

9. Baktun 8. Baktun of the Lords of Red and Black. A.D. 41-435.
Completion of Pyramid Center of Teotihuacan, consolidation of Mesoamerica cultural regime, Lords of Red and Black, first teachings of Quetzalcoatl; Moche, Nazca, and Tiahuanaco in Andes; Easter Island; emergence of West African kingdoms; expansion and collapse of Roman Empire, rise of Christianity; collapse of Han Dynasty, spread of Buddhism in China, Southeast Asia.

10. Baktun 9. Baktun of the Maya. A.D. 435-830.
Second Galactic Mayan visitation, Pacal Votan of Palenque and flourishing of Mayan cultural regime; Muhammed and the rise of Islam; Roman Christian Western Europe and Byzantine Orthodox Christian Eastern Europe; rise of Hinduism, India; spread of Buddhism to Tibet, Korea, Japan; T’ang Dynasty, China; rise of kingdoms in Southeast Asia, Indonesia (Borobadur, Java); ascendency of Tiahuanaco, Andes; Polynesian civilization, Oceania, early flourishing of Nigerian civilization.

11. Baktun 10. Baktun of the Holy Wars. A.D. 830-1224.
Collapse of Classic Maya and Central Mexican civilization, 1 Reed Quetzalcoatl and rise of Toltecs; Chan Chan and Chimu civilization Andes; rise of I’fe in Nigeria; flourishing and spread of Islam and confrontation with Christian civilization—the Crusades; rise of Tibetan civilization; Sung Dynasty, China, printing press, gunpowder, Khmer Dynasty, Southeast Asia. Great Zimbabwe, East Africa.

12. Baktun 11. Baktun of the Hidden Seed. A.D. 1224-1618.
Expansion of Islam to India, Central and Southeast Asia, West Africa; seclusion of Tibet; rise of Turks, Mongols, conquest of China; seclusion of Japan; rise of Zimbabwe, East Africa, I’fe and Benin, West Africa; peak of Christian civilization, West Europe, and rise of Orthodox Russian civilization, East Europe; Reformation and split of Christian Church; spread and triumph of European civilization in conquest of Inca and Aztec empires; beginning of European colonization, decline of sacred world view (hidden seed).

13. Baktun 12. Baktun of the Transformation of Matter. A.D. 1618-2012.
Rise and triumph of scientific materialism, European world conquest, Industrial Revolution, Democratic revolutions of America, Europe; colonialism of Africa, Latin America, Asia; industrialization of Japan; Karl Marx and rise of commonism; communist revolutions of Russa, China; World Wars I and II; atomic bomb and nuclear era; rise of Third World powers, Islam, Mexico, and India; global terrorism and collapse of technological civilization; Earth purification and final era of global regeneration; information age and crystal solar technology; galactic synchronization.

2012: End of the Fifth Sun

by Will Hart

Certain aspects of the interlocking Maya calendar system have filtered into public consciousness in the last decade and a half. One of them is the prediction that we will come to the end of a solar-planetary cycle in 2012. But what is this cycle exactly and why is it going to end on the winter solstice of that auspicious year? Is the world going to end as some people are forecasting?

The Maya conceived of time and human history as moving in cycles, small and large. While we use a single calendar to keep track of our annual solar circuit and to mark all of the important days within a year, the Maya used a variety of calendars. The array included a 365-day solar calendar; a 260-day sacred calendar and a Long Count calendar that operated something like an odometer with a zero start date. Unlike the other calendars the Long Count clocked linear time and was programmed to stop after 5,125 years elapsed.

The Long Count was begun at the onset of this current cycle, known as the 5th Sun, in 3114 BC. It will clock the required number of years to complete a full cycle of five suns on December 21, 2012. John Major Jenkins has made the case that this date corresponds to two major alignments, (one between the winter solstice sun and the galactic equator; the other an approximate one between solstice sun and galactic core) and it also completes the Great Zodiac precession cycle of 26,000 years. I am not questioning this thesis however I do wonder if that is all there is to the end of this solar cycle- the 5th Sun?

The Maya began their Long Count on what they referred to as the ‘Birth of Venus.’ Scholars have never been able to determine what the Maya were referring to and neither have alternative researchers. Nevertheless their sacred calendar, the Tzolkin, placed the synodic cycles of Venus in a central role. The 104-year ‘Venus Round’ cycle (2 Calendar Rounds of 52 years each), was a very important ceremonial event as this was the point in time when the solar and sacred calendars realigned with the cycle of Venus.

I need to insert an important numerical progression at this point to provide a basis for the rest of the article. The number thirteen was a root number for the Maya. It is both a prime number and the eighth number in the crucial Fibonacci series that is one source of the Golden Ratio, 1.618.

If we use 13 as the root of the Mayan calendar system we find the following sequence: 13, 26, 39, 52, 65, 78, 91 and 104, which are achieved by simply adding 13 to each succeeding sum. These are the key numbers in the Mayan calendrics and they have a solid scientific footing. Venus was the central component of the Mayan cosmology.

It is for good reason that our nearest planetary neighbor is called earth’s sister planet. They have a phase-locked orbital cycle that is based on a 13:8 ratio. That is derived from the fact that Venus revolves around the sun 1.6 times faster than Earth so that 13 Venus revolutions is equal to 8 years.

The image to the right has been made by hand with help of computer software for drafting. First, let’s draw a square and two circles so one fits inside a square and the other outside the square. Strangely this represents accurately proportions of the orbits of Venus and Earth. Second, let’s draw equally spaced points on each circle representing number of days per orbit (365 points for the orbit of the Earth and 225 points for the orbit of Venus). Next, let’s connected lines between orbital positions of each planet for each day – picking for the starting point a day when both planets are closest to each other. After repeating this process for 8 orbits of the Earth the lines form this amazing image >>

This image (to scale) shows dance of Venus and Earth – each of the fine lines connects both planets over time required to complete 8 orbits by Earth (and 13 orbits by Venus). Orbit of Earth is cropped out. Copyright by

Why is this important? By establishing Venus as the key component of the sacred calendar they automatically built the Golden Ratio (1.6) into the system since that ratio defines the difference between the two planets orbital cycles. By using 13 as the root number they also included the crucial multiples, or powers, of thirteen – 13,000 and 26,000 – or half as well as the full number of years in the precession. We see that the 5 Suns, each lasting 5,125 years, also add up to the Great Zodiacal Year.

We can break these numbers down in different ways and each will show that there was nothing arbitrary about the Mayan system. We somewhat arrogantly disdain other cultures for being superstitious until we come to the number 13 and our own irrationality surfaces. But let’s examine how deeply embedded this number – as well as 26, 52 and 91 – are in our own calendar. Our year is divided into four seasons that are demarcated by the equinoxes and solstices.

Each of the four seasons is 91 days or 13 weeks long, which gives us a year of 52 weeks. We see the key Maya 13-base numerical progression reflected in our own calendar. Half of a year is 26 weeks. It is beyond the scope of this article to delve into all of the intricacies of the Mayan calendrical and mathematical systems; they were extremely adept in these fields.

What I have uncovered during my decades of research into this topic are two crucial keys to understanding the system: the ‘Transit of Venus’ and solar output cycles. It just so happens that the 2012 end date corresponds to a Venus Transit cycle that occurs twice in the next 10 years in 2004 and then in 2012. As mentioned above Venus was central to the Mayan cosmology. The Long Count began on what the Maya call the “Birth of Venus” so it is perhaps not too surprising that it ends on a Transit of Venus.

A transit is the astronomical event that occurs when one celestial body appears to move across the face of another celestial body, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point. The word “transit” refers to cases where the nearer object appears considerably smaller than the more distant object. Cases where the nearer object appears larger and completely hides the more distant object are known as occultations.
One example of a transit involves the motion of a planet between a terrestrial observer and the Sun. This can happen only with inferior planets, namely Mercury and Venus (see transit of Mercury and transit of Venus). However, as seen from outer planets such as Mars, the Earth itself transits the Sun on occasion.

A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and Earth, obscuring a small portion of the solar disk. During a transit, Venus can be seen from Earth as a small black disk moving across the face of the Sun. The duration of such transits is usually measured in hours (the transit of 2004 [photo to the left],lasted six hours). A transit is similar to a solar eclipse by the Moon, but, although the diameter of Venus is almost 4 times that of the Moon, Venus appears smaller because it is much farther away from Earth.
Transits of Venus are among the rarest of predictable astronomical phenomena and currently occur in a pattern that repeats every 243 years, with pairs of transits eight years apart separated by long gaps of 121.5 years and 105.5 years. The periodicity is a reflection of the fact that the orbital periods of Earth and Venus are close to 8:13 and 243:395 resonances. Before 2004, the last pair of transits were in December 1874 and December 1882. The first of a pair of transits of Venus in the beginning of the 21st century took place on 8 June 2004 and the next will be on 6 June 2012. After 2012, subsequent transits of Venus will be in December 2117 and December 2125. –Wikipedia

My research has revealed that a Transit of Venus occurred in 1518 and 1526. This was the period when Cortez landed on the shores of the Yucatan and wound up conquering the Aztec empire. The next transit was in 1631-’39. It was followed by a complete stoppage of the sunspot cycle, which lasted for 70 years (science has no explanation for this event). The ‘little ice age’ occurred between 1645 and 1720. What do we find associated with the next transit in 1761-‘69? We discover the birth of the American Revolution.

There is no doubt that the Transit of Venus was an important divinatory alignment factored into the Maya calendar. We will not have to wait for long to test this theory and also get a glimpse of 2012 during the ‘passage’ years. But in reality as Jose Arguelles and others have pointed out the precursor years began in 1987 and the final stages of this cycle really kicked into gear in 1991-’1993. How do we know? There has been a tremendous surge in the number and magnitude of natural disasters and this was also forecast as a harbinger of the 5th Sun’s demise.

13,000 years is a very important time period since we know that the last ice age ended then. This indicates that there is a periodicity to the solar output cycle. There are short and long term fluctuations in solar output and as a result great ice ages, little ice ages and warm interglacials, which we are in and nearing the end of now.

The cyclical nature of the long range weather patterns are well established as is the variable nature of solar activity. We know that that is true since we have been in a ‘global warming’ period for the past 300 years. The “little ice age” started to thaw in the early 1700s when the sunspot cycle returned. The level of solar activity has been increasing steadily from that ‘zero sunspot point’ right up to our recent sunspot cycles in 1989-‘90 and the double peak in 2000- ’02. [ See sunspots peak example below –Source: CSA ].
Is it a coincidence that 2012 also coincides with the next solar sunspot maximum? The actual peak of this 300-year cycle of increasing solar output occurred in 1960 when the number of sunspots exceeded 200, the usual peak is around 100-150. Now, what is interesting is that during the first half of the 20th century the Earth’s seismic and volcanic activity were comparatively quiet.

Then after 1960 the level of seismic and volcanic activity increases steadily to the point that the 1990s can accurately be called the ‘decade of disasters’. The surge in major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions radically departed from earlier decades. According to the chief scientist for the world’s largest reinsurance company Zurich Re, “since 1960 natural disasters are a growth industry.”

I hardly need to mention “global warming” since it is constantly in the headlines. However, the truth is obvious for those that care to see it. The Earth has been warming for 13,000 years with periodic short-term cold spells. However, solar output is the forcing mechanism behind global warming and the 5th Sun is intimately tied to that phenomenon. What does the end of the 5th Sun really mean?

I take it very literally to mean that the sun’s output is going to change. We are going to enter the flip side of a new 13,000 year cycle. The earth is overheated and so is the sun, the result being planetary instability manifested in rising earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and erratic weather patterns.

These will increase further starting in 2004. The volcanic ash will create more and more cloud cover and that will begin to cool the planet down. If my theory is correct the Maya knew that the Venus Transit acted like a circuit breaker switching off the sunspot cycle and impacting the Sun-Moon-Earth-Venus system. This appears to have happened just prior to the previous two ‘little ice ages’ that were preceded by what solar physicists call the Spoorer (1400-1510) and Maunder Minimum(s) 1640-1710), periods of radically diminished solar activity.

The Venus Transit will trigger the demise of the 5th Sun and set the stage for the next cycle, the 6th Sun. That is the physical side of the Maya 5th Sun forecast. Unlike many predictions this one is built into the Maya calendar and it can be verified with some historical research. Is the world going to end in a violent crescendo of natural disasters and impacts from cosmic objects? I do not think that is likely nor is it what the Maya predicted.

However, a prolonged period of change is on the horizon that will be ushered in by the 2004 – 2012 ‘passage’. It will culminate in the galactic alignment* and complete the precessional cycle at that point.

The Maya Fifth Sun
The Maya called an era a “sun” but the exact time span is not clear. In the Popul Vuh, the book of Mayan creation mythology, there were 3 unsuccessful attempts at creating humans, and the gods were successful on the 4th attempt. Therefore, current humans are the “fourth creation” and we are now living in the “fourth sun.” As this era draws to a close, we enter the “fifth sun” and a new age or creation begins. But, does a sun refer to a cycle of 13 baktuns (5200 tun or 5125.26 solar years)? Or does a sun refer to a much larger cycle of 5 of these 13-baktun cycles (26,000 tun or 25,626.28 solar years)? Another key question is when did the sun cycle begin and end? Over 60 correlations to the Gregorian Calendar are proposed with a span of 600 years for the present 13-baktun cycle.

The Maya Fifth Sun begins when the current era (Great Cycle) of the Fourth Sun comes to an end. Many believe this will happen on December 21, 2012. The Maya knew that planetary cycles were embedded in vast cosmic cycles, and these kept repeating endlessly to infinity. The cosmic 26,000 tun cycle corresponds to the precession of the equinoxes (25,625 solar years). This cycle is divided into 5 cycles of 5200 tun (5125 solar years). The tun is 360 days, a reflection of earth’s rotation before the cataclysm of 11,500-12,000 years ago that disrupted most of our solar system. The Fifth Sun corresponds to completion of one full zodiac cycle. Astrologers say we are now entering Aquarius, the first zodiac sign, and leaving Pisces. Aquarius the Water Bearer brings peace and harmony to earth. In the Maya Fifth Sun, an age of expanded consciousness, a new human emerges able to live in harmony with the earth, the environment, all creatures, and the greater cosmic order.

The Mystery Message of Pacal Votan and 2012
The Last Great Mayan King

As fate would have it and through many years unbeknown to me, the mysterious Maya King known as Pacal Votan has secretly occupied a place in my life. Albeit for all these years he’s simply been an object of decorative art in my home and it was not until recently that I was re-introduced to this all important Maya King.

He plays a significant role in our shift into the next world age in Mayan chronology on the winter solstice of December 21, 2012. Pacal Votan was the ruler-king from 603-683 BC in the glorious city of Palenque in Chiapas, Mexico. He is revered as the chief engineer that guided the Maya through their inscriptions on stone monuments and temples with very precise astronomical and astrological information.

My initial encounter with Pacal Votan happened much further away while on a exploration trip in the jungles of the Yucatan Peninsula. Always one with an eye for uniqueness, I was drawn to purchase a bust carving made of jade and situated on a base of black onyx. The only thing I knew at the time was it represented just another Mayan king like many before him and those few remaining after him, and would return fond memories of that fascinating trip. Fast forward to 2010.

While researching the Maya calendar and time systems specifically the Long-Count version where the 2012 date originates and signifies the end of this particular world age, I came across an image of Pacal Votan. I was pleasantly surprised recognizing the face and immediately and retrieved the carving for a closer look. Yes, it was a representative image of the King himself and it now occupies a special place upon my desk even as I write this post. While simply being another Maya king and that is still true today, the significance and wisdom of Pacal Votan and what he spoke about the time leading up to 2012 cannot be discounted.

Universal Frequency of Natural Time
A quick step back in time to the city of Palenque reveals an amazing archeological discovery that took place while excavating on the site. A Mexican archeological team in 1948 lead by Alberto Ruz Lhuillier first discovered a plaster tube beneath the stone flooring in a room on top of the Temple of the Inscriptions. This plaster tube is known as the “Earth Spirit Speaking Tube” a conduit that is said Pacal Votan used to communicate with the living. It follows the once hidden 69 steps down into the entrance of the king’s tomb inside the pyramid. After four years of excavating into the Temple of the Inscriptions, they found Pacal Votan’s sarcophagus and body. And what a discovery it was. Ruz said it was both awesome and mystical, because he knew that burial chamber had been untouched since 692 BC. He said he could feel the breath of the last people who closed that door. If it had not been for the tube, that tomb may not have been found!

I believe it was this special tomb the only one known to have been hidden by the Mayans inside a temple, and its unique sarcophagus lid that became famous after being brought into public light through the writing of Erich von Daniken in his 1968 book- Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past. The now famous sarcophagus lid depicts what many today see as someone commanding a type of vehicle.

The Mayan academic community believes it only represents Pacal descending into the mouth of the Underworld. There is much more knowledge being revealed through the elaborate carvings on the lids surface. The debate and opinions concerning the “space craft” or vehicle theory continue to this day.

Lord Pacal died on March 31, 683 at the age of 80. He resided as king near the end of the Classic Period, from July 29, 615 B.C. assuming the throne at an incredible young age of 12 and ruled for 68 years. I’m a person fascinated by the likelihood that mathematics (aka Sacred Geometry) govern the known universe; so, whenever I notice similarities or synchronicity involving numbers I cannot hide being at least amused. Some quite interesting dates and time-lines that carry allot of meaning surround Pacal Votan’s burial, 2012 and the subsequent discovery of his resting place. Even with the pyramid construction progress on the Temple of Inscription above his tomb, somehow Pacal Votan prior to his death could see forward into linear time enabling him to communicate a profound message of time so accurate it defies left-brain logic.

Although Pacal Votan died in 683, nine years went by until his tomb beneath The Temple of Inscriptions was dedicated and sealed in 692 BC. Between 692 and discovery of his tomb in 1952, 1,260 years had passed. This number- 1260 is a very significant as an indirect, even subliminal message referring to man-made artificial time. Without diverging greatly, the Maya where masters with date keeping and did so through natural means using celestial mechanisms primarily lunar and solar observations that are so accurate they only need adjustment once every 100,000 years!

Contrary to natural timekeeping, today through our use of the Julian/Gregorian calendar and all our technological advancements, we have lost our powerful connection with creation so much that we still do not fully understand our handicapped nature. Pacal Votan knew this was to occur and wrote of just a world in which we find ourselves today in the closing days of the Mayan 5th world age. More about the cause and effect later, but first we need to grasp the language of time, its cycles, and a prophetic mathematical message as conveyed by Pacal Votan.

12:60 can be viewed as a direct reference to our artificially fabricated man-made 12 month calendar and mechanical, 60 minute hours which have led our world forward since Julius Cesar introduced this calendar in 46 BC. This calendar or more precisely, “clock” was the first machine and the basis for all machine technology to come. It seem fitting that this number, 1260 would blatantly appear in the time line of Pacal Votan as it identifies with the western world’s chosen date keeping method at the time the temple was constructed and the tombs discovery in 1952.

Natural Time vs. Artificial Time
Another, special number appears as well and refers not only to Maya natural time keeping methods, but also the year 2012. Between 692 AD and 2012 the closing of the Mayan 5th age, (see this post) there are exactly 1,320 years. For most, this number quite frankly is meaningless. However, upon closer look at events, an amazing message appears.

From Pacal Votan’s tomb discovery in 1952 to 2012 there is just 60 years remaining. When you add the 60 years together with the 1,260 years the tomb was hidden, you again get that special number- 1,320 years! By the way, this is the same number encoded in the mathematics of the Mayan Long-Count calendar 13:20- 13 baktuns (144,000 days), consisting of 20 katuns (7,200 days) each; the entire 13 baktun cycle is to be completed in 2012. This to me is far more than coincidence as everything was in perfect timing, precisely as foreseen by Pacal Votan and he left nothing about the tomb’s message of time to chance, not even its discovery.

Just as 12:60 is representative of something man-made that is, limited 3 dimensional time, 13:20 is representative of natural time or the Law of Time, a cosmic 4th dimensional existence. This is the world in which not only the Maya but many other indigenous cultures existed in long before man’s attempt to permanently alter natural laws with the introduction man-made time. In other numerical terms, 13:20 can be associated with the 13 annual cycles of the moon and our bodies have 13 major articulations- ankles, knees, hips, wrists, elbows, shoulders and the neck. You can also add 13 + 20 and arrive at a master number of 33 which is also the number of vertebrae in the spine. Let’s not forget the 20 fingers and toes, together all these symbolically connect Heaven and Earth.

To the Maya, 13:20 was a very important ratio as it was also reflected in one of their master calendars called the Tzolkin. Interestingly, this calendar had alternate meanings like- “pieces of sun” or “day-count of vibrational tree-consciousness”.

This Tzolkin calendar although not based on the movement of heavenly bodies, describes all the energies of Creation (260 of them, 13×20) as they daily move along through cycles within cycles. Again, all based on a 13:20 ratio that permeates the entire Mayan natural time keeping system and as we have just seen, the famous Long-Count calendar. In this 260 day calendar, there are 13 months of 20 days and it included 20 weeks consisting of 13 days each.

With both man-made, 12:60 time and universal, 13:20 natural time codes present within Pacal Votan burial, tomb discovery and the 5th age conclusion on December 21, 2012 this could very well be a valiant attempt by Pacal Votan to validate and express a simultaneous convergence of differing existences finally colliding in our time. One could say living in a 12:60 time-line is to be assured of limitation where living in 13:20 a universal, cosmic time-line is to embrace limitlessness and non-separation that exists in all of creation.

A Time Traveler Speaks
All this should not come as a real shock when one considers that Pacal Votan was known as the magician of time and mathematics. He applied mathematics as a language to bridge the divided human experience and will enable us to consciously transcend higher into the eternal realms. He is attributed in saying:

“All is number. God is a number. God is in all.”

This is an intriguing way to conceptualize the Maya’s 2012 message that we are intimately linked together and all of life is ordered by re-occurring cycles of time and their associated patterns within all creation. We are now closing out the most important time cycle, our own solar system’s ~26,000 year Galactic realignment with the source and center of the Milky Way Galaxy on or around December 21, 2012 that coincides with the close of the Mayan’s 5th age and their 13th baktun which began 5,125 years ago in August, 3114 BC. (For more insight see this article) Our infinite, interconnectedness with all of creation is the Mayan’s primary message regarding 2012. We can only go through this opening doorway by living a synchronistic way of life that is in absolute harmony with all creation and this dimensional doorway is represented by natural, cosmic time.

So what did Pacal Votan speak about these days of this cycle we now live in? For starters, he said that mankind would disconnect from the laws of natural order through the use of artificial time and become addicted to materialistic values becoming ignorant of our sacred interdependence with nature, that is- all of creation. This current 5th world cycle is known both as “the triumph of materialism” and “the transformation of matter.” How fitting are those descriptions in this closing age of time. I believe we have accomplished both and now find ourselves awakening to the fact that something much greater and very important to our survival has been missed or unknowingly discarded along the way.

Pacal also understood that mankind would have to awake from a state of amnesia to regain our conscious connection to a universal natural, 13:20 cosmic time of synchronicity and by adopting it, would become no longer spiritually bound by a restrictive, materialistic centric 12:60 mechanized time illusion. Truth be told, time is not money, time is art.

An Error in Time
Even to the casual observer it is easy to see that with the invention of the clock, it gave birth to the false idea that time is outside us. It’s as if time is something we can observe like daily blocks on a calendar or tick-tock of a clock that fly by in a linear fashion totally devoid of the natural, organic process of life that goes on without interruption and without artificial time. I suspect this disconnection to natural time and the rhythmic cycles of creation is a primary means for our current inability to access the higher self and our inherent inner technology with ease and grace.

To clarify what Pacal Votan mysterious message of time is saying to us can easily be seen through what happened at the beginning of the 13th and last baktun of the Mayan calendar. The final 13th baktun cycle began in 1618 and ends in 2012. As we entered this final cycle of time, it was right after the introduction of the 12-month Gregorian calendar system in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. It was also during the early 1600’s when the accuracy of mechanical clocks were finally perfected.

Between these two instruments and their combined use is what catapulted humanity headlong into the birth of the scientific revolution and materialism governed by mechanized time. Of course without these tools the industrial revolution and all our technological advancements could not have taken place; yet between the Maya and Pacal Votan time prophesies they verify this world age like others prior is ending right on “time” giving way to a new paradigm.

“The clock turns time from a process of nature into a commodity that can be measured and bought and sold like soap or sultanas. And because, without some means of exact time keeping, industrial capitalism could never have developed and could not continue to exploit the workers, the clock represents an element of mechanical tyranny in the lives of modern men more potent than any individual exploiter or any other machine… Now the movement of the clock sets the tempo men’s lives – they become the servant of the concept of time which they themselves have made, and are held in fear, like Frankenstein by his own monster.” -George Woodcock

We can no longer expect to continue at the exponential speed at which our technological progress is unfolding without attaining a corresponding level of wisdom and expect to avert disaster. Business as usual is a blind path; just look at the crossroads of choice we face today. There is no reason why we cannot transition out of our present condition on this wonderful planet with the proper use of specialized technologies and our own internal, divine technologies to create “Heaven on Earth”.

A key mystery as to how we may do this has been revealed through the wisdom of Pacal Votan’s message about our needed reconnection to once again return to our complete selves by connecting to the natural order of the universe through our use of the 13:20 frequency of natural time. For more information about the Mayans universally correct natural calendar or ways in which this spiritually tuned time keeping method can be applied into your life, visit-

by John Major Jenkins
The Mayan Long Count
Just some basics to get us started. The Maya were adept skywatchers. Their Classic Period is thought to have lasted from 200 A.D. to 900 A.D., but recent archeological findings are pushing back the dawn of Mayan civilization in Mesoamerica. Large ruin sites indicating high culture with distinctly Mayan antecedents are being found in the jungles of Guatemala dating back to before the common era. And even before this, the Olmec civilization flourished and developed the sacred count of 260 days known as the tzolkin. The early Maya adopted two different time keeping systems, the “Short Count” and the Long Count. The Short Count derives from combining the tzolkin cycle with the solar year and the Venus cycle of 584 days. In this way, “short” periods of 13, 52 and 104 years are generated. Unfortunately, we won’t have occasion to dwell on the properties of the so-called Short Count system here. The Long Count system is somewhat more abstract, yet is also related to certain astronomical cycles. It is based upon nested cycles of days multiplied at each level by that key Mayan number, twenty:

Number of Days/ Term
1 / Kin (day)
20 / Uinal
360 / Tun
7200 / Katun

Notice that the only exception to multiplying by twenty is at the tun level, where the uinal period is instead multiplied by 18 to make the 360-day tun. The Maya employed this counting system to track an unbroken sequence of days from the time it was inaugurated. The Mayan scholar Munro Edmonson believes that the Long Count was put in place around 355 B.C. This may be so, but the oldest Long Count date as yet found corresponds to 32 B.C. We find Long Count dates in the archeological record beginning with the baktun place value and separated by dots. For example: equals 6 baktuns, 19 katuns, 19 tuns, 0 uinals and 0 days. Each baktun has 144000 days, each katun has 7200 days, and so on. If we add up all the values we find that indicates a total of 1007640 days have elapsed since the Zero Date of The much discussed 13-baktun cycle is completed 1872000 days (13 baktuns) after This period of time is the so called Mayan “Great Cycle” of the Long Count and equals 5125.36 years.

But how are we to relate this to a time frame we can understand? How does this Long Count relate to our Gregorian calendar? This problem of correlating Mayan time with “western” time has occupied Mayan scholars since the beginning. The standard question to answer became: what does (the Long Count “beginning” point) equal in the Gregorian calendar? When this question is answered, archeological inscriptions can be put into their proper historical context and the end date of the 13-baktun cycle can be calculated. After years of considering data from varied fields such as astronomy, ethnography, archeology and iconography, J. Eric S. Thompson determined that correponded to the Julian date 584283, which equals August 11th, 3114 B.C. in our Gregorian calendar. This means that the end date of, some 5125 years later, is December 21st, 2012 A.D.1

The relationship between the Long Count and Short Count has always been internally consistent (both were tracked alongside each other in an unbroken sequence since their conception). Now it is very interesting to note that an aspect of the “Short Count”, namely, the sacred tzolkin count of 260 days, is still being followed in the highlands of Guatemala. As the Mayan scholar Munro Edmonson shows in The Book of the Year, this last surviving flicker of a calendar tradition some 3000 years old supports the Thompson correlation of 584283. Edmonson also states that the Long Count was begun by the Maya or pre-Maya around 355 B.C., but there is reason to believe that the Long Count system was being perfected for at least 200 years prior to that date.

The point of interest for these early astronomers seems to have been the projected end date in 2012 A.D., rather than the beginning date in 3114 B.C. Having determined the end date in 2012 (for reasons we will come to shortly), and calling it, they thus proclaimed themselves to be living in the 6th baktun of the Great Cycle. The later Maya certainly attributed much mythological significance to the beginning date, relating it to the birth of their deities, but it now seems certain that the placement of the Long Count hinges upon its calculated end point. Why did early Mesoamerican skywatchers pick a date some 2300 years into the future and, in fact, how did they pinpoint an accurate winter solstice? With all these considerations one begins to suspect that, for some reason, the ancient New World astronomers were tracking precession.

The Precession
The precession of the equinoxes, also known as the Platonic Year, is caused by the slow wobbling of the earth’s polar axis. Right now this axis roughly points to Polaris, the “Pole Star,” but this changes slowly over long periods of time. The earth’s wobble causes the position of the seasonal quarters to slowly precess against the background of stars. For example, right now, the winter solstice position is in the constellation of Sagittarius. But 2000 years ago it was in Capricorn. Since then, it has precessed backward almost one full sign. It is generally thought that the Greek astronomer Hipparchus was the first to discover precession around 128 B.C. Yet scholarship indicates that more ancient Old World cultures such as the Egyptians (see Schwaller de Lubicz’s book Sacred Science) and Babylonians also knew about the precession.

I have concluded that even cultures with simple horizon astronomy and oral records passed down for a hundred years or so, would notice the slow shifting of the heavens. For example, imagine that you lived in an environment suited for accurately demarcated horizon astronomy. Even if this wasn’t the case, you might erect monoliths to sight the horizon position of, most likely, the dawning winter solstice sun. This position in relation to background stars could be accurately preserved in oral verse or wisdom teachings, to be passed down for centuries. Since precession will change this position at the rate of 1 degree every 72 years, within the relatively short time of 100 years or so, a noticeable change will have occurred. The point of this is simple. To early cultures attuned to the subtle movements of the sky, precession would not have been hard to notice.2

The Maya are not generally credited with knowing about the precession of the equinoxes. But considering everything else we know about the amazing sophistication of Mesoamerican astronomy, can we realistically continue to deny them this? Many of the as yet undeciphered hieroglyphs may ultimately describe precessional myths. Furthermore, as I show in my book Tzolkin: Visionary Perspectives and Calendar Studies, the Long Count is perfectly suited for predicting future seasonal quarters, indefinitely, and precession is automatically accounted for. Some of the most incredible aspects of Mayan cosmo-conception are just now being discovered. As was the case with the state of Egyptology in the 1870’s, we still have a lot to learn. In addition, Mayanists like Gordon Brotherston (The Book of the Fourth World) consider precessional knowledge among Mesoamerican cultures to be more than likely.

The Sacred Tree
We are still trying to answer these questions: What is so important about the winter solstice of 2012 and, exactly how were calculations made so accurately, considering that precession should make them exceedingly difficult?

If we make a standard horoscope chart for December 21st, 2012 A.D., nothing very unusual appears. In this way I was led astray in my search until Linda Schele provided a clue in the recent book Maya Cosmos. Probably the most exciting breakthrough in this book is her identification of the astronomical meaning of the Mayan Sacred Tree. Drawing from an impressive amount of iconographic evidence, and generously sharing the process by which she arrived at her discovery, the Sacred Tree is found to be none other than the crossing point of the ecliptic with the band of the Milky Way. Indeed, the Milky Way seems to have played an important role in Mayan imagery. For example, an incised bone from 8th century Tikal depicts a long sinking canoe containing various deities. This is a picture of the night sky and the canoe is the Milky Way, sinking below the horizon as the night progresses, and carrying with it deities representing the nearby constellations. The incredible Mayan site of Palenque is filled with Sacred Tree motifs and references to astronomical events. In their book Forest of Kings, Schele and Freidel suggested that the Sacred Tree referred to the ecliptic. Apparently that was only part of the picture, for the Sacred Tree that Pacal ascends in death is more than just the ecliptic, it is the sacred doorway to the underworld. The crossing point of Milky Way and ecliptic is this doorway and represents the sacred source and origin. In the following diagram of the well known sarcophagus carving, notice that the Milky Way tree serves as an extension of Pacal’s umbilicus. The umbilicus is a human being’s entrance into life, and entrance into death as well:
Diagram 1: Pacal and the Sacred Tree.

We may also remember at this point that the tzolkin calendar is said to spring from the Sacred Tree. The Sacred Tree is, in fact, at the center of the entire corpus of Mayan Creation Myths. We should definitely explore the nature of this astronomical feature.

The first question that came up for me was as follows. Since Lord (Ahau) Pacal is, by way of divine kingship, equated with the sun, and he is portrayed “entering” the Sacred Tree on his famous sarcophagus lid, on what day does the sun come around to conjunct the crossing point of ecliptic and Milky Way? This would be an important date. In the pre-dawn skies of this date, the Milky Way would be seen to arch overhead from the region of Polaris (Heart of Sky) and would point right at where the sun rises. This (and the corollary date 6 months later) is the only date when the Sun/Lord could jump from the ecliptic track and travel the Milky Way up and around the vault of heaven to the region of Polaris, there to enter the “Heart of Sky.” It should be mentioned that 1300 years ago, during the zenith of Palenque’s glory, Polaris was much less an exact “Pole Star” than it is now. Schele demonstrates that it wasn’t a Pole Star that the Maya mythologized in this regard, it was the unmarked polar “dark region” symbolizing death and the underworld around which everything was observed to revolve. Life revolves around death – a characteristically Mayan belief. The dates on which the sun conjuncts the “Sacred Tree” are thus very important. These dates will change with precession. Schele doesn’t pursue this line of reasoning, however, and doesn’t even mention that these dates might be significant. If we go back to 755 A.D., we find that the sun conjuncts the Sacred Tree on December 3rd. I should point out here that the Milky Way is a wide band, and perhaps a 10-day range of dates should be considered.

To start with, however, I use the exact center of the Milky Way band that one finds on star charts, known as the “Galactic Equator” (not to be confused with Galactic Center). Where the Galactic Equator crosses the ecliptic in Sagittarius just happens to be where the dark rift in the Milky Way begins. This is a dark bifurcation in the Milky Way caused by interstellar dust clouds. To observers on earth, it appears as a dark road which begins near the ecliptic and stretches along the Milky Way up towards Polaris. The Maya today are quite aware of this feature; the Quich» Maya call it xibalba be (the “road to Xibalba”) and the Chorti Maya call it the “camino de Santiago”. In Dennis Tedlock’s translation of the Popol Vuh, we find that the ancient Maya called it the “Black Road”. The Hero Twins Hunahpu and Xbalanque must journey down this road to battle the Lords of Xibalba. (Tedlock 334, 358). Furthermore, what Schele has identified as the Sacred Tree was known to the ancient Quich» simply as “Crossroads.”

This celestial feature was not marginal in ancient Mayan thought and is still rec- ognized even today. In terms of how this feature was mythologized, it seems that when a planet, the sun, or the moon entered the dark cleft of the Milky Way in Sagittarius (which happens to be the exact center of the Milky Way, the Galactic Equator), entrance to the underworld road was possible, which could then take the journeyer up to the Heart of Sky. Shamanic vision rites were probably involved in this scenario. In the Yucatan, underground caves were ritual places used by shaman to journey to the underworld. Schele explains that “Mayan mythology identifies the Road to Xibalba as going through a cave” (Forest of Kings, 209). Here we have a metaphorical reference to the “dark rift” in the Milky Way by way of its terrestrial counterpart, a syncretism between earth and sky which is characteristic of Mayan thinking. Above all, what is becoming apparent from the corpus of Mayan Creation Myths is that creation seems to have taken place at a celestial crossroads – the crossing point of ecliptic and Milky Way.

To clarify this ever growing picture, we should stop here and plot out some charts. In addition to the detailed star maps from Norton’s 2000.0 Star Atlas which allowed me to pinpoint the crossing point of Galactic Equator and ecliptic, I use EZCosmos to plot these positions3. What I found answers the question of why the Maya chose the winter solstice of 2012, a problem seemingly avoided by astronomers and Mayanists alike. While it is true that the sun conjuncts the Sacred Tree on December 3rd in the year 755 A.D., over the centuries precession has caused the conjunction date to approach the winter solstice. So, how close are we to perfect conjunction today? Exactly when might we expect the winter solstice sun to conjunct the crossing point of Galactic Equator and ecliptic – the Mayan Sacred Tree? Any astronomer will tell you that, presently, the Milky Way crosses the ecliptic through the constellation of Sagittarius and this area is rich in nebulae and high density objects. In fact, where the Milky Way crosses the ecliptic in Sagittarius also happens to be the direction of the Galactic Center.4

The Charts
So the quest returns to identifying why December 21st, 2012 A.D. might represent some kind of astronomical anomoly. I’ll get right to the heart of the matter. Let’s look at a few charts.

Chart 1.
Here is a full view of the sky at noon on December 21st, 2012 A.D. The band of the Milky Way can be seen stretching from the lower right to the upper left. The more or less vertical dotted line indicates the Galactic Equator. The planets can be seen tracing a roughly horizontal path through the chart, indicating the ecliptic. The sun, quite strikingly, is dead center in the Sacred Tree. Let’s look closer.

Chart 2.
The field is now reduced from a horizon-to-horizon view to a field of 30 degrees. Part of the constellation of Sagittarius can be seen in the lower left portion of the chart. The planet in the middle-to-upper left portion of the chart is Pluto, which rarely travels directly along the ecliptic. The center square near the sun is placed on the Trifid Nebula (M20). According to the star chart I used, this nebula is very close to the crossing point of Galactic Equator and ecliptic. However, a small star (4 Sgr) is even closer; it sits right on the Galactic Equator and its declination is only 00 .08′ below the ecliptic. Let’s look closer at these features.

Chart 3.
The field is now reduced to a 5-degree span, what astrology considers to be within conjunction. The dot to the lower right of the sun is the star 4 Sgr. Amazingly, the Sun is right on target. We couldn’t have hoped for a closer conjunction. 1 day before or after will remove the sun a noticeable distance from the crossing point. December 21st, 2012 ( in the Long Count) therefore represents an extremely close conjunction of the winter solstice sun with the crossing point of Galactic Equator and the ecliptic, what the ancient Maya recognized as the Sacred Tree. It is critical to understand that the winter solstice sun rarely conjuncts the Sacred Tree. In fact, this is an event that has been coming to resonance very slowly over thousands and thousands of years. What this might mean astrologically, how this might effect the “energy weather” on earth, must be treated as a separate topic.

But I should at least mention in passing that this celestial convergence appears to parallel the accelerating pace of human civilization. It should be noted that because precession is a very slow process, similar astronomical alignments will be evident on the winter solstice dates within perhaps 5 years on either side of 2012. However, the accuracy of the conjunction of 2012 is quite astounding, beyond anything deemed calculable by the ancient Maya, and serves well to represent the perfect mid-point of the process.

Let’s go back to the dawn of the Long Count and try to reconstruct what may have been happening.

Why: Winter Solstice Sun Conjuncts The Sacred Tree in 2012 A.D.
First, the tzolkin count originated among the Olmec at least as early as 679 B.C. (see Edmonson’s Book of the Year). We may suspect that astronomical observations were being made from at least that point. The tzolkin count has been followed unbroken since at least that time, up to the present day, demonstrating the high premium placed by the Maya upon continuity of tradition. In this way, star records, horizon positions of the winter solstice sun, and other pertinent observations could also have been accurately preserved. As suggested above, precession can be noticed by way of even simple horizon astronomy in as little time as 100 to 150 years. (Hipparchus, the alleged “discoverer” of precession among the Greeks, compared his own observations with data collected only 170 years before his time.) Following Edmonson, the Long Count system may have appeared as early as 355 B.C. Part of the reason for implementing the Long Count system, as I will show, was probably to calculate future winter solstice dates.

We must assume that even at this early point in Mesoamerican history, the crossing point of ecliptic and Milky Way was understood as the “Sacred Tree”. Since the Sacred Tree concept is intrinsically tied into the oldest Mayan Creation Myths, this is not improbable. At the very least, the “dark rift” was already a recognized feature. Early skywatchers of this era (355 B.C.) would then observe the sun to conjunct the dark ridge in the Milky Way on or around November 18th.5 This would be easily observed in the pre-dawn sky as described above: the Milky Way points to the rising sun on this date.

Over a relatively short period of time, as an awareness of precession was emerging, this date was seen to slowly approach winter solstice, a critical date in its own right in early Mayan cosmo-conception. At this point, precession and the rate of precession was calculated, the Long Count was perfected and inaugurated, and the appropriate winter solstice date in 2012 A.D. was found via the Long Count in the following way.

How: Long Count and Seasonal Quarters
Long Count katun beginnings will conjunct sequential seasonal quarters every days (194400 days). This is an easily tracked Long Count interval. Starting with the katun beginning of 650 B.C.:

Long Count Which Quarter? Year Fall 650 B.C. Winter 118 B.C Spring 416 A.D. Summer 948 A.D. Fall 1480 A.D. Winter 2012 A.D.

Note that the last date is not only a katun beginning, but a baktun beginning as well. It is, indeed, the end date of 2012.6

The Long Count may have been officially inaugurated on a specific date in 355 B.C., as Edmonson suggests, but it must have been formulated, tried, tested, and proven before this date. This may well have taken centuries, and the process no doubt paralleled (and was perhaps instigated by) the discovery of precession. The Long Count system automatically accounts for precession in its ability to calculate future seasonal quarters – a property which shouldn’t be underestimated.

This has been my attempt to fill a vacuum in Mayan Studies, an answer to the why and how of the end date of the 13-baktun cycle of the Mayan Long Count. The solution requires a shift in how we think about the astronomy of the Long Count end date. The strange fact that it occurs on a winter solstice immediately points us to possible astronomical reasons, but they are not obvious. We also shouldn’t forget the often mentioned fact that the 13-baktun cycle of some 5125 years is roughly 1/5th of a precessional cycle. This in itself should have been suggestive of a deeper mystery very early on. Only with the recent identification of the astronomical nature of the Sacred Tree has the puzzle revealed its fullness. And once again we are amazed at the sophistication and vision of the ancient New World astronomers, the decendants of whom still count the days and watch the skies in the remote outbacks of Guatemala.

This essay is not contrived upon sketchy evidence. It basically rests upon two facts:

1) the well known end date of the 13-baktun cycle of the Mayan Long Count, which is December 21st, 2012 A.D. and

2) the astronomical situation on that day. Based upon these two facts alone, the creators of the Long Count knew about and calculated the rate of precession over 2300 years ago. I can conceive of no other conclusion. To explain this away as “coincidence” would only obscure the issue.

For early Mesoamerican skywatchers, the slow approach of the winter solstice sun to the Sacred Tree was seen as a critical process, the culmination of which was surely worthy of being called, the end of a World Age. The channel would then be open through the winter solstice doorway, up the Sacred Tree, the Xibalba be , to the center of the churning heavens, the Heart of Sky.

1Linda Schele and David Freidel, unlike most Mayanists, continue to support the work of Floyd Lounsbury in promoting the 584285 correlation. This is 2 days off from the Thompson correlation that I use. The decisive factor in supporting the Thompson correlation of 584283 is the fact that it corresponds with the tzolkin count still followed in the highlands of Guatemala. To account for this discrepency in his correlation, Lounsbury claims that the count was shifted back two days sometime before the conquest (not likely), thus explaining its present placement. This means that either correlation will give the December 21st end date. Nevertheless, Schele and Freidel still report that the end date is December 23rd, 2012 rather than Dec. 21st, an unfortunate faux pas understandable only because they aren’t particularly interested in the specifics of the correlation debate. For a detailed discussion of this topic, refer to my book Tzolkin: Visionary Perspectives and Calendar Studies.

2Case in point is the mysterious existence of myths obviously describing precession in the ancient verses of the Kalevala, the Finnish National Epic. These myths were relayed from the earliest times by way of singers. Many of these stories are thoroughly magical and are filled with sky lore. The Finnish language is not of Indo- European origin and up until the late 19th century peasants in Finland and northwestern Russia had little contact with Europe. Indeed, their heritage suggests more contact with Central Asia than Europe. Some of the Kalevala stories describe a sacred Mill called the Sampo (derived from sanskrit Skambha = pillar or pole) with a “many ciphered cover”. This spinning Mill is a metaphor for a Golden Age of plenty and the starry sky spinning around the Pole Star (known as the Nail of the North), which in the Far North is almost straight over head. The Mill at some point is disturbed, its pillar being pulled out of its peg, and a new one – a new “age” – must be constructed. This becomes the chore of Ilmarinen, the primeval smith. In this legend, ancient knowledge of precession among unsophisticated “peasants” who were nonetheless astute skywatchers, was preserved via oral tradition almost down to modern times.

3EZCosmos is a graphic software package that can accurately plot and animate the positions of planets, stars, nebula and so on, for 14,000 years. It is well suited to this research because it accounts for precession in its positional calculations. It also happens to be the software that Linda Schele used to discover the astronomical meaning of the Mayan Sacred Tree.

4 Here we briefly converge with the ideas of Terence McKenna. In the book he co- authored with his brother Dennis (Invisible Landscape, Seabury Press 1975 and Harper San Francisco, 1993), Terence suggests that the position of winter solstice sun within 3 degrees of the Galactic Center in the year 2012 A.D. (a “once-in-a-precessional- cycle” event) may provide the eschatological end point for his theory of time known as Timewave Zero. His end date was chosen for historical reasons and was, apparently, only later discovered to correspond with the Mayan end date. The McKennas point out that this unusual astronomical situation has been noted by other writers, namely, Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend in Hamlet’s Mill (1969). As ACS Publication’s The American Ephemeris for the 21st Century shows, in the year 2012 the Galactic Center is at 27 Sagittarius (within 3 of winter solstice). Thus McKenna demonstrates that on winter solstice of 2012, Galactic Center will be rising heliacally just before dawn, in a way reminiscent of how the Maya observed Venus’s last morningstar appearance.

5This basically follows the “1 degree every 72 years” rule of precession. In this way, back in 3114 B.C. the sun conjuncted the Sacred Tree on Oct 10th, which is 72 degrees, or 1/5th of the ecliptic from the winter solstice. The Fall Equinox sun conjuncted the Sacred Tree about 6400 years ago (1/4th of a precessional cycle). Ancient cultures in Mesopotamia may have recognized this alignment, and called it a Golden Age. The fall from this state of alignment may be responsible for the original Fall from Paradise myth, which filtered out to the Judaic tradition.

6The Long Count has other strange astronomical properties. For instance, the 13- katun cycle of 256 years was known to the Yucatec Maya as a prophecy cycle. We see it used in the Books of Chilam Balam. The astronomical reference here is to conjunction cycles of Uranus and Pluto, two of which equal 256 years. From another angle, 3 katuns equal exactly 37 synodical cycles of Venus.

  1. G kenaga says:

    “The greatest power ever conceived by man is the power of compounding interest.” – Albert Einstein

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