Archive for the ‘Ancient Civilizations’ Category

This may be old news to some, but for many it wont be. A study published in the Journal of Archaeological Science in December of 2013 found that the earliest known (according to the study) iron artifacts that date back to circa 3200 BC, from two burials in northern Egypt were made from meteoritic iron, and shaped by careful hammering of the metal.(1) After hammering pieces into thin sheets before being rolled into tubes, the nine beads that were found were originally strung into a necklace with other materials like gold and gemstones. This discovery reveals the value of these materials in ancient times. It also reveals that in the fourth millennium BC, metal workers had mastered the smithing of meteoritic iron, well before what was previously though

The beads were excavated in 1911, found in a cemetery, and are believed to be the earliest known iron artifacts. A total of nine beads were retrieved, and the necklace beads were found in their original order.  Since both tombs securely date back  to Naqada, 3400-3100 BC, the beads predate the emergence of iron smelting by nearly 2000 years, and other known meteoritic iron artefacts by 500 years or more.

Professor Thilo Rehren from Hamad bin Khalifa University in Qatar was the lead author of the paper. They used x-ray methods to determine whether the 5,000 year old beads were actually meteoric iron, and not magnetite, which can often be mistaken to be corroded iron due to similar properties.

“The really exciting outcome of this research is that we were for the first time able to demonstrate conclusively that there are typical trace elements such as cobalt and germanium present in the beads, at levels that only occur in meteoritic iron. We are also excited to be able to see the internal structure of the beads, revealing how they were rolled and hammered into form. This is very different technology from the usual stone bead drilling, and shows quite an advanced understanding of how the metal smiths worked this rather difficult material” – Professor Rehren

There is a lot of mystery surrounding Egypt, but the fact that they made cosmic jewelery is pretty cool. We don’t often reflect on just how advanced civilizations were in these times. Even today, how the pyramids were built, the mathematical precision and the astronomical alignments that correlate with them are astonishing. If we wanted to do something like that today, even with all of our technology, it would still be almost impossible to recreate. There is a lot of evidence to suggest that these ancient civilizations were much more advanced than we are. I find it quite amusing that they knew that the Earth was round, before we even believed it to be flat!

Ancient Egyptians were fascinated with the sky, and according to Joyce Tyldesley, who co-authored a study on the same findings that was published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, “the sky was very important to the ancient Egyptians, something that falls from the sky is going to be considered as a gift from the gods.” (2)

While we are on the topic of meteorites, just a year earlier a group of scientists claimed with certainty that tiny fossils uncovered inside a meteorite found in Sri Lanka in late December 2012, are proof of extraterrestrial life. The paper was published in the Journal of Cosmology by Chandra Wickramasinghe, the director of the Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology at the University of Buckingham in the United Kingdom. The study was conducted alongside researchers at the School of Mathematics at Cardiff University and from the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Obviously, the study is surrounded by much controversy, you can read more about that and view the study here.

Earlier this year, a group of scientists claimed with certainty that tiny fossils uncovered inside a meteorite found in Sri Lanka in late December 2012, are proof of extraterrestrial life. A paper was published in the Journal of Cosmology (1)(3) by Chandra Wickramasinghe. Wickramasinghe is the director of the Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology at the University of Buckingham in the U.K. The study was conducted alongside researchers at the School of Mathematics at Cardiff University and from the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. – See more at:
January 7, 2014 by




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16th September 2013

By Steven Strong

Contributing Writer for Wake Up World

According to Frederic Slater, who was the President of the Australian Archaeological and Education Research Society, an Original stone arrangement he and a colleague were investigating throughout 1939 is “the Stonehenge of Australia.” Assumed to be lost for the last 63 years, this impressive and complex sandstone arrangement is much more than a collection of rocks, signs and symbols positioned on a mound. According to Slater, “the mound is one of the oldest; I should say the oldest, forms of temples in the world, and dates back to the… advent of first man.”

Not only was the mound the first temple, the narrative and wisdom it chronicles is as profound as it is sublime, so much so that Slater claimed it formed “the basis of all knowledge, all science, all history and all forms of writing.”

These are extremely bold claims to make; to suggest that the very first language was spoken and recorded in stone in Australia carries with it many inconvenient historical implications. Modern humanity is assumed to have had its genesis in Africa. We are told a few restless inquisitive souls set foot outside African soil some 60,000 years ago and spread their culture and genes. In this theoretical construct, there is no room for Australia to be anything other than an afterthought and merely an African colony peopled by mariners who surely spoke before setting sail to Australia.

Bulldozing Australia’s History
Despite the unpopular stance advocated by Slater, his research was meticulous and the methodology sound. More to the point, such was the strength of the case he made on behalf of this arrangement being the First Language, in 1940 representatives of the Australian Government approached the farmer and threatened to confiscate his land because of these rocks. The landholder under threat was openly sympathetic to the archaeology being done, but realised while the stones stood he would lose his land, income and livelihood. Within days of the threat by Government, the stones were reluctantly bulldozed and the land was left alone. Slater had lost his proof and not another supporting public statement was made. The whole unpleasant episode was expunged from the public arena and Slater’s correspondence was apparently lost or destroyed.

And so this historical vacuum remained… until about three months ago when local teacher Richard Patterson was rummaging through some discarded files in the back room of the local Historical Society. Amongst the accumulation of papers and documents were Slater’s letters to his on-field colleague. Soon after, Richard contacted me and my team, and so the unraveling has began.

Rudimentary Language?
The First Sacred Language that Slater claimed to have deciphered is very complex, multi-layered and at his last count of “28,000 words,” far more diverse and complicated than what could be assumed in relation to the very first language spoken on Earth. We are of the belief this complex language spread throughout most of the coastal regions of Australia unified under Southern Law.

While historical and linguistic texts propose that the first tongue was crude and limited to the most basic emotions and objects, which then slowly increased in number and sophistication, here a symbol can have four different meanings. This formalised method of communication was made up of numbers, hand signs, stone arrangements, elements, trees, letter sounds, animal shapes, etc. The intricate combination of all manner of apparently unrelated themes and disciplines creating a seamless blend into one formal script, is in contradiction to the expected rudimentary linguistic starting point, and calls into question many assumptions relating to human ascension and development.

Leaving aside that reports from the Original Elders of Lore are in accord with the integrity of Slater’s claims, the logistics, technology and labour involved in creating this mound was unparalleled in this country… and deserving of further archaeology on site. By my estimation after viewing from a discreet distance, the hundreds of tonnes of sand, clay and sandstone that make up one mound deposited on top of this flat swampy plain is not part of the local geology. According to Slater and his co-worker, the closest deposit of sandstone was more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) away. The problem is, until the arrival of British settlers in Australia, no-one in this country had a wheel, pulley, wheelbarrow or metal chisel to cut and move the rocks 20 kilometres, and nor is there any other example in Australia of a mound or stone arrangement weighing over a tonne.

Quite simply, this Original construction doesn’t fit into any academic book or curriculum.

The Mystery of Life
What only unsettles the academic climate further is the content of the narrative contained within this stone arrangement called “The Mystery of Life.” The opening placement of stones on the southern edge, which looks very much like a medicine wheel, was interpreted by Slater to read as “guided by truth, man came to Earth through darkness from light of life that shines far off.” This extra-terrestrial theme of somebody or being coming to this planet from “far off” is repeated throughout these constructions, extolling that the “truth was brought out on wings to Earth” and “the Divine Light from afar to the Earth brings the soul to man.”

It is a site without parallel on the east coast of Australia at so many levels. The means of construction, significance, content, sacredness and real possibility that this arrangement chronicles the first time modern humans devised a formal means of expressing words and thoughts, are but some of issues that need to be investigated.

In what only adds to the intrigue, Slater is not only adamant that the ancient Egyptians were not only present (and most probably assisting in the transport of sandstone and fill) but they came in homage and reverence. He asserted that “there is no mistaking the fact that the Aborigines… gave not only to the Egyptians their knowledge and their foundation of hieroglyphics and their philosophy, but formulated the basis of all knowledge in the beginning, now and to come.”

Initial Observations
The archaeology conducted on site is still in the process of being compiled and analysed, however a few simple observations can be already offered. The chances are extremely high that this stone arrangement is an actual account of the First Sacred Language and conveys both historical details and a prophecy of times soon to come. The first mound is definitely artificial, its shape is too symmetrical, the placement on a flat swampy plain is dramatically at odds with the surrounding topography, and the sand, clay and sandstone that makes up this construction is in contradiction with its immediate geology. Throw into this mix confirmation from Original Elders and Custodians versed in Original Lore and history that this is one of, if not the, most sacred site in Australia, and we begin to see why Slater was so adamant that this is “Australia’s Stonehenge.”

Frederic Slater was an Egyptologist. He was the President of the Australian Archaeological Research and Education Society. Australian Government officials approached the landholder in 1940 and threatened to confiscate their freehold land simply because of these standing stones. These are facts. Slater’s opinions and our research of them is obviously up for debate and alternative explanations. But with the bounty of archaeology found on site and Elders confirming Slater’s translation, this stone arrangement is potentially the most sacred archaeological site in Australia.

There is no other explanation on offer.

A monumental discovery with four years of comprehensive Geo-archaeological research has failed to reach mainstream audiences for some reason.  The most active pyramid site in the world dating the pyramid complex back 25,000 years has also released scientific evidence supporting the theory that the pyramids were used as an energy source.  The recent study reveals energy beams transmitting electromagnetic signals unexplainable by our science in what is now documented as the largest Pyramid complex in the world.  Overwhelming evidence, supported by scientific research from all over the archaeological community proves that our recorded history is wrong concerning turn changes religion, science and academics.

All Giza Pyramids
Dr. Osmanagich has investigated pyramids all over the world, however his recent discovery of the Bosnian pyramids in Visoko, are nothing more than remarkable.  What may be more remarkable is how he has been attacked in the media, by scientists and researchers for his incredible find.

The very first thing world powers do when their control systems are threatened (and they can’t eliminate the idea) is they create a misinformation system to make people believe that powerful new or ancient technologies are a hoax.  Prominent archaeologists have attempted smear campaigns on Dr. Osmanagich’s work out of fear of how the impact of his discoveries will make on their own work.

It’s more than time to rewrite our history books, however there are such vast divisions between the old paradigm thinking and the new, that conflicts between the two camps have continued to cause the regression in the understanding of ancient technology rather than its advancement.

Take note of the following facts Dr. Osmanagich details in the above video:

1) These are the first pyramids in Europe
2) They are the biggest and largest on the planet
3) The cardinal sides have the most precise orientation on the planet
4) The concrete found is better than the best available concrete today
5) They are the oldest pyramids on the planet
6) Underneath the pyramids is the most extensive, prehistorical network of tunnels and chambers ever found
7) In these tunnels they have discovered huge cermaric blocks weighing in excess of 18,000 pounds

The discovery of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids changes the understanding of European and world history forever.  This also goes for the oldest and strongest concrete dated and the largest network of underground tunnels and chambers.

Radiocarbon dating that proves the Bosnian Pyramid Complex dates back at least 25,000 years has been revealed by an international team of scientists led by Dr. Sam Osmanagich. Discovered in 2005, the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Archaeological Park, which houses the largest pyramid in the world, is now the most active archaeological site on the planet.  The team’s findings also reveal an energy beam, 13 feet in radius that transmits an unexplainable electromagnetic signal measuring 28 kilohertz coming from the center of the Pyramid of the Sun.  This phenomenon has been independently confirmed by physicist Dr. Slobodan Mizdrak, Ph.D. from Croatia, professor Paolo Debertolis, anthropologist from University of Trieste in Italy, sound engineer Heikki Savolainen from Finland and electrical engineer Goran Marjanovic from Serbia.

The energy beam is theorized by Dr. Osmanagich as the reason the pyramids were built; to provide ancient civilizations a powerful source of clean energy.  This is already a widely supported theory set forth by the book “The Giza Power Plant” by Christopher Dunn published in 1998.  The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is 30% larger than the largest pyramid at Giza and recent excavation has uncovered an extensive pre-historical underground labyrinth system, further evidence supporting the power plant theory.

Is it possible that the fossil fuel based energy system we now rely on could have been prevented if inventor Nicola Tesla’s work on free energy hadn’t been suppressed? Tesla’s (1856-1943) patented free energy methods were rejected due to their inability to be metered and monetized.  “We urgently need to change our mistaken point of view that our ancestors were stupid and accept that they had an advanced understanding of the fabric of nature and the universe, just like Nikola Tesla, whose ideas were suppressed as they did not and do not fit in the reigning economic model,” states Phillip Coppens, author and investigative journalist.  “The pyramids are proof that our ancestors knew and worked with an energy technology that we are now finally able to measure, but are still short of fully understanding.”Coppens along with Klaus Dona of Austria and dozens of speakers attended the International Conference Bosnia Pyramid in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina which is held annually to release findings to the public.

Osmanagich has had a host of experts in various fields come to see his Bosnian pyramids, and measure anomalies associated with them.  They have included the noted British scientist and inventor Harry Oldfield, who used a special camera system to photograph alleged electromagnetic (EM) waves in the vicinity of Visocica Hill.

The pyramid structures that were built in Bosnia and across the globe over 10,000 years ago cannot be duplicated by modern science and machinery in the 21st century and there is no explanation for who could have built them in our recorded history.

“We realize that this site changes our knowledge of history and as such the findings will need to withstand harsh scrutiny. Our inter-disciplinary scientific team carefully utilizes legitimate scientific research methodology, often having tests done from two or more separate laboratories,” explained Dr. Osmanagich, PhD. “Despite some initial skepticism, we now have a world-wide team of hundreds of thought leaders from numerous scientific disciplines including archeologists, geophysicists, chemical engineers, physicists, electrical engineers, and mathematicians gathering scientific evidence to find the answers.”

Geometric features of the pyramids


Based on numerous airborne and space-borne images of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, it becomes evident that the geometric features present with three sides that exhibit geometrical shape of a triangle.  Even though such elements occur in nature, it is rarely, if ever, a precise shape and rarely replicated on opposite sides of a mound. In this case, two sides are equilateral triangles, with well- defined sides. Satellite imaging of the local area in the central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Landsat, Radarsat, Hyperion, Ikonos, courtesy of Dr. Amer Smailbegovic), indicated that there are five hills which show apparent geospatial anomalies where two or more sides are triangular.  All of the aforementioned hills exhibit triangular sides and some have elements of stairs and step features on the sides with flat plateaus on the top. In the case of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, three out of four sides exhibit evidence of geometric features. Geologic evidence is not indicative of any significant faulting or the processes of the glaciations in the area that would otherwise affect the existence, geometry and texture of these sides.

Perfect orientation — Cardinal sides of the world

The measurements made by the Geodetic Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina indicate that the sides of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (BPS) are exactly aligned with the cardinal sides of the world (North-South, East-West), which is one of the characteristics often noted with the existing pyramids in Egypt, Peru, Guatemala or China.  The North side of the BPS is oriented towards stellar North (like the Great Pyramid of Egypt), in parallel with the position of the North Star.

Geological-sedimentary analyses

The results of core drilling, test-well sinking and limited trenching in August and October 2005, with a follow-up in 2006 and 2007, have confirmed prior observations and, revealed that the surface of the pyramids is comprised of layered sandstone and breccia blocks, which have been manually processed and/or cut to fit the required dimensions.  The binding agent found between the sandstone blocks suggest the presence of a “clastic breccia,” a multicolored conglomerate comprised out of gravel, sandstone and shale with a connective matrix or cement composed of sandy carbon particles of quartz, feldspar and flakes of mica.  The flat sides of the blocks, the contact zone, and the binding agent are clearly visible. Further detailed cleaning of the contact line between the two sandstone blocks revealed that the blocks were manually processed beneath and that the surface was flat and smooth, with binding agent applied afterwards to the surface.

Equilateral triangle of three main pyramids

Three main pyramids in the Bosnian Pyramid Valley form an equilateral triangle.  The Kadastral Office from the County of Visoko performed GPS measurements of the hilltops and determined that all angles are symmetric (60 degrees). Their measurements showed that the distances among all three hilltops are the same (approx. 2,2 km) with less than 2% error, verifying the artificial structures.

Geometry, shape, orientation, constructive material — they all prove the perfect planning and execution of the complex.

Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun

The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is the world’s largest 220 meters high and completely covered by soil and vegetation. During the 1950s and 1960s, local government organized tree planting activities.  Trees managed to grow only on the bottom half of the Pyramid.  Thickness of the soil on Western, Northern and Eastern side of the Pyramid varies from the top (20cm) to the bottom (1.5 meter). This is due to the erosion.  The Southern side, which seams to be damaged, has a soil layer of 3-6 meters. That is the reason why this side has lost its regularity. Physical material evidence of shaped and well preserved stone monoliths were unearthed during the ongoing geo-archaeological campaign in 2006-2008.

Satellite radar has penetrated the surface of Northern side of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun of four meters. Straight black lines show underground passageways — pyramidal substructure. Some of them intersect at 90 degrees.

Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon

With its height of 190 meters, Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon is the world’s second largest: next to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (220 meters) and higher than Khufu’s Great Pyramid of Egypt (148 meters).  It is a three-sided pyramid with the plateau coming from the East, leading to the top of the structure. Other sides (North, West, South) match the cardinal points.  For the construction of this pyramid, sandstone plates and tiles were used together with the clay as a constructive material.

Archaeological field work on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon shows that under layers of soil and wood.  There exists a huge stone/clay structure, three-sided “terraced” pyramid with paved causeway coming from East.

A Network of Underground Tunnels

Examples of the main pyramidal complexes worldwide show that under the pyramids, underground passageways and chambers had been built.  It’s the case of pyramids in Giza (tunnels connect the pyramids, sphinx, Nile), Teotihuacan (underground enlarged 4-chamber cave with passageways), Step pyramid in Saqqara (underground “labyrinth”), China (underground tunnels built from sandstone, bricks and clay), Tenerife (cave-tunnels in Guimar). Numerous field findings suggest that an extensive tunnel network exists in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. It is hypothesized (Principal investigator Semir Sam Osmanagich) that the tunnel system connects all of the colossal objects, water wells and other structures of importance.  The current excavations in progress have already presented with findings of several shaped monoliths in the tunnels.  Hundreds of meters of tunnels have been secured by wooden support. The tunnels were definitively not the mining shafts as no tools, coal, silver, gold or any other worthy material were found and they appear much older than Middle Age or Roman times.

[For reference here is an interview I did years ago regarding the Pyramids and the power they really possess while the same information has been hidden from all of us for literally “Thousands of years.”  This being said just think what they (the breakaway civilization +Industrial Military Banking Complex – “JHS”) have really, managed to achieve, to this point in our perceived, “time”.]

– See more of this article at:

By: Deborah West Contributor Profile | More Stories

Wednesday, November 6, 2013 19:42

Evidence Found Across the Globe of Highly Evolved Human Species from before the Ice Age, Demand Scientific Recognition of our Past that Depicts Societies of Advanced Technology and Culture

To Hear Dr. Sam’s Interview on Lost Knowledge go to:

 (Houston, TX Nov 6, 2013) Houston anthropologist, Dr. Semir Osmanagich, founder of the Bosnian Archaeology Park, the most active archaeology site in the world, declares that irrefutable scientific evidence exists of ancient civilizations with advanced technology that leaves us no choice but to change our recorded history.  An examination of the age of structures across the earth reveals conclusively that they were built by advanced civilizations from over 29,000 years ago. 

Acknowledging that we are witness to fundamental proof of advanced civilizations dating back over 29,000 years and an examination of their societal structures forces the World to reconsider its understanding of the development of civilization and history,” explains Dr. Semir Osmanagich.  “Conclusive data at the Bosnian Pyramid site revealed in 2008 and confirmed this year by several independent labs who conducted radio carbon testing dates the site at 29,400 +/-400 years minimum.


The radiocarbon dating tests of 29,200 years +/- 400 years was done by Radiocarbon Lab from Kiew, Ukraine on organic material found at the Bosnian Pyramid site. Physicist Dr. Anna Pazdur of Poland’s Silesian University first announced the news at a Press Conference in Sarajevo in August of 2008. Professor of classical archaeology from the University of Alexandria Dr. Mona Haggag called this discovery “writing new pages in European and World history.” The C14 date of 29,000 years at the Bosnian Archaeological Park was obtained from a piece of organic material retrieved from a clay layer inside the outer casing to the pyramid. It follows a sample date obtained during the 2012 dig season on Material located above the concrete at 24,800 years, meaning this structure has a construction profile stretching back almost 30,000 years.


The ancient people who built these pyramids knew the secrets of frequency and energy. They used these natural resources to develop technologies and undertake construction on scales we have never witnessed on earth,said Dr Osmanagich.  Evidence clearly shows that the pyramids were built as ancient energy machines aligned with the earth’s energy grid, providing energy for healing as well as power.


 Ancient historians and researchers in the US have news just as astonishing as anything found in the far corners of the globe.  For instance, the Rockwall discovery outside of Dallas TX is only one example of how we are now re-examining ancient mysteries to reveal more about our past right in the United States. H2 (History 2) most popular series, Unearthing Ancient America recently filmed an episode about the Rockwall that will air later this year. The Texas site is a complex and massive wall over ten miles in diameter built over 20,000 years ago seven stories below the ground. The question is by whom was this structure built and for what purpose and most importantly how can knowledge left by these past civilizations help shape our future?



Newly revealed or rediscovered traces of ancient civilizations, has ignited an innate curiosity about human origins as reflected by recent coverage in mainstream media and TV.  The November 2013 issue of National Geographic: 100 Greatest Mysteries Revealed-Ancient Civilizations Unearthed says, “Sometimes cultures leave behind mysteries that baffle those who come after them, from standing stones to coded manuscripts, indications that ancient people indeed had a profound purpose.”  This special issue focuses on ancient sites and the mysterious clues left behind by civilizations we know little about.

Forward thinking scientists continue to pursue knowledge from our past that is useful to determine a better future.  Renowned author Michal Cremo in his book Forbidden Archeology theorizes that knowledge of advanced Homo sapiens has been suppressed or ignored by the scientific establishment because it contradicts the current views of human origins that don’t agree with the dominant paradigm. Cremo’s body of work has been described as “a useful teaching resource, raising a wide range of issues covering aspects of knowledge transfer, sure to be provocative in the classroom.” It has been reviewed with widespread appraisal by hundreds of academic journals.


Gobekli Tepe in Eastern Turkey


Results clearly indicate that similar advanced civilizations of humans were present all across the globe at that time in history. For example, Gobekli Tepe located in Eastern Turkey, is a vast complex of enormous megalithic stone circles with a radius of between 10 and 20 meters, much larger than the well-known Stonehenge in Great Britain. Excavations at Gobekli Tepe that began there in 1995 revealed radio carbon dating at least 11,600 years. German archaeologist Dr. Klaus Schmidt from the German Archaeological Institute, Berlin Germany with the support of ArchaeoNova Institute from Heidelberg, Germany has led the excavation of these recently discovered pre-historic megalithic circles at the Turkey location.

 “Gobekli Tepe is one of the most fascinating Neolithic locations in the world,” Dr. Klaus Schmidt claims.  But as he explains in a recent report, to understand the new finds, archaeologists need to work closely with specialists in comparative religion, architectural and art theory, cognitive and evolutionary psychology, sociologists using social network theory, and others.


“It is the complex story of the earliest large, settled communities, their extensive networking, and their communal understanding of their world, perhaps even the first organized religions and their symbolic representations of the cosmos,” as reported by Klaus Schmidt.  

In addition to the megalithic structures, figures and carvings have been discovered, depicting animals of pre historic nature such as dinosaurs and other wild life. Since excavations started in 1995, four of the circles have been partially cleaned, but it is thought that there are a total of up to 50 circles hidden underground.   These vast monoliths, soaring seven meters in height and 25 tons in mass at Gobekli Tepe, are situated right in the heart of what we perceive as the origin of civilization. This find offers new guidance to the true history of earth and our ancient civilizations.

“Our archaeological research goal is not to simply uncover all of the megalithic circles but to try to figure out their purpose,” adds Schmidt. 


Bosnian Pyramid now in Eighth Year: Proof of Advanced Civilizations from over 30,000 years ago

The Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids now in the eighth year of excavation spans six square kilometers in the Visoko River Basin 40km northwest of Sarajevo.  Comprised of four ancient pyramids almost three times the size of Giza and an extensive subterranean pyramid tunnel complex, new discoveries each year continue to reveal proof of a much different history of mankind on earth.  The central pyramid of the Sun rises a colossal 420 meters in to the air and has a mass of millions of tons. By comparison the Great pyramid of Cheops (Khufu) in the Giza plateau is 146 meters high, making the Bosnian Pyramids the largest and oldest known pyramids on the planet. Since research began at the Bosnian site, Dr. Osmanagich has amazed the scientific and archaeological community by gathering a team of interdisciplinary engineers, physicists, and researchers from around the world to conduct open and transparent investigation of the site to try and discover the true nature and purpose of this pyramidal complex.

“This is an unknown culture presenting highly advanced arts and sciences, technology capable of forming truly massive structures and we believe in that process demonstrating an ability to harness pure energy resources,” comments Tim Moon, who has recently joined Osmanagich as lead archeologist at the Bosnian site.

 The archaeological project delivered another significant finding this year in the pyramid tunnel complex known as Ravine. Tunneling deep into a ridge line leading toward the Pyramid of the Sun the team has unearthed several megalith stones.  In August an enormous stone estimated at 25,000 kgs was uncovered approximately 400 meters into the labyrinth. This is a hugely significant find,”comments Moon. Here we have a massive stone, possibly a constructed ceramic, buried under hundreds of thousands of tons of material. We are locating foundation walls around its perimeter and cut stone blocks.” Large quantities of artifacts have been recovered from the associated tunnels leading to the site, including effigies painted on stone, art objects and a series of hieroglyphics or ancient texts carved into the tunnel walls. 

Dr. Osmangich stresses that it is time for open sharing of knowledge so we can understand and learn from our past. “It is time for us to open our minds to the true nature of our origin and destruction of each other as a civilization on this planet.  Our mission here is to realign science with spirituality in order to progress as a species and this demands a clear path of shared knowledge.”

Visitors are welcome to the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids and its Foundation offers a volunteer program each dig season- running June-Sept.

For more on the Bosnian Pyramids go to

Why did the Egyptians cancel the most dramatic ceremony of the Millennium?

Excerpt from the book Secret Chamber  © Robert G. Bauval

Amid accusations of bizarre ‘Zionist’ plots and strange ‘Masonic’ machinations, the Egyptian government cancelled the placing of a golden capstone on top of the Great Pyramid which was scheduled to take place at midnight on on the eve of the new millennium. Curiously, the story has its origins in France when, in May 1998, a golden capstone was ceremoniously placed on top of the Egyptian obelisk which stands at the Place de la Concorde in the heart of Paris with guests of honour Egypt’s president Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosni and the Antiquities’ chairman Dr. Ali Gaballah. This Paris obelisk, which was taken from the temple of Luxor in Upper Egypt in 1831, had been commissioned by Charles X and was raised in the Place de la Concorde in 1836 amid massive celebrations attended by a crowd of 200,000 people. Charles X was a Freemason and historians have suspected that the secret Brotherhood was behind the idea of bringing the Egyptian obelisk to France. Other obelisks which were also taken out of Egypt by the Freemasons in the late 19th century included the two famous “Cleopatra’s Needles”, which today can be seen at the Victoria Embankment in London and in New York’s Central Park. The London obelisk was commissioned and paid for by a prominent Freemason, Sir Erasmus Wilson, and the raising ceremony in London was attend by hundreds of British Freemasons in September 1878 under the auspices of the Prince of Wales who also was Grand Master of United Grand Lodge, Freemasonry’s regulating body in Britain. That same year the ‘New York’ obelisk was noticed by US President Ulysses S. Grant and General William T. Sherman during a visit to Egypt, who felt that America should also have an ancient Egyptian obelisk of its own. Henry W. Gorringe, a prominent Freemason, was selected for the task of bringing the obelisk to New York. The obelisk was raised in October 1880 outside the newly built Metropolitan Museum, with over ten thousand Freemasons attending the ceremony in Masonic regalia. The important symbolic aspect of an obelisk is not its tall stem but mainly its top which is shaped like a small pyramid. Pyramids, especially with the ‘eye of providence’ in them, feature very prominently in Masonic rituals. The symbol can be seen on the face of the US one-dollar bill and also on the Great Seal of the United States. In Freemasonry the glowing pyramid and eye represents the so-called Great Architect of the Universe or the Supreme Being, both epithets for God. This Masonic symbolism was used prominently in France during the 1789 Revolution and was embossed on the front of The Declaration of Human Rights. The first celebrations of the French Revolution that took place in 1793 saw many makeshift ‘pyramids’ raised in the heart of Paris and in the courtyard of the Louvre Museum, causing many historians to suspect a Masonic involvement. Today a glass pyramid with the same geometrical proportions as the Great Pyramid of Giza adorns the courtyard of the Louvre.

During the May 1998 celebrations in Paris, when the obelisk at the Place de la Concorde was crowned with a golden pyramid, the Egyptian culture minister announced that a similar ceremony would take place at the Great Pyramid of Giza for the millennium celebrations:

“We cannot rebuild the pyramids stone by stone,” said Farouk Hosni, “so we have chosen a symbolic event like the ancient Egyptians did when they used to cap obelisks like what the French did at the Place de la Concorde”.

Later in October 1998 the Farouk Hosni announced that French composer Jean-Michel Jarre was to organise this event at Giza. The official Egyptian Tourist Authorities announced that Jean-Michel Jarre would compose a 12-hour opera titled “The Twelve Dreams of the Sun” for the sum of 10 million US dollars and that,

“At midnight a helicopter will fly into the site and, hovering in a starburst of lasers and spotlights, will place a gigantic gilded capstone atop the Great Pyramid –all to the accompaniment of what is expected to be an unprecedented Jarre crescendo of electronic music. The gold cap, approximately 28 feet high (about the size of a two-story house) is being especially constructed to protect the pyramid structure. In place, it will catch the first light of the new millennium as the sun rises over Egypt. Capping pyramids with gold and timing important events to the setting and rising sun are very much part of the ancient Egyptian pharaonic tradition, making this piece of Jarre theatre particularly meaningful.”

In 1989 Jean-Michele Jarre had organised a quasi-similar event in Paris for the Bicentennial of the French Revolution when he set up a large metal-framed pyramid as a stage for his band in front of the Grande Arche at La Defense in the western end of the Champs Elysees. Another show by Jarre also took place a few years later in London’s Canary Wharf which is topped by a glowing glass pyramid apparently having the same geometrical proportions as the Great Pyramid in Egypt, and as the one that stands in the courtyard of the Louvre Museum in Paris, built by the American architect Ming Pei. It would appear that the idea of a new golden capstone for the Great Pyramid originated with Dr. Zahi Hawass, Under-secretary of State for the Giza Monuments. In early 1998 Dr. Hawass unearthed two limestone blocks with ancient inscriptions and drawings depicting workers moving a golden capstone for a royal pyramid amid scenes of dancing and celebrations and proposed that Egypt should celebrate the millennium in a similar way. At first 3 million people were scheduled to attend the event free of charge but the Egyptian authorities put a limit of 250,000 for ‘security reasons’. Huge promotional events were organised in various capitals of the Western world, including New York, Los Angeles, Sydney and various cities in Europe. Preparations then began for a huge stage in the desert south of the Great Pyramid, intended to have seating capacity for 25,000 people at the price of $400 per ticket. Cheaper tickets of $15 were also sold for ‘standing’ places in the nearby desert. All was apparently going to plan until September 1999, when senior members of the Egyptian Parliament began to complaint of the costs involved and also that the millennium celebrations coincided this year with the Islamic month of Ramadan, when devout Muslims in Egypt fast from dawn to dusk and foreigners are asked to refrain from drinking alcohol or eating in public areas during the hours of fasting. To counteract such criticism, culture minister Farouk Hosni stated that a ban would be placed on alcohol during the celebrations and that no music would be played until after the official end of the fast was announced. To add fuel to this political fire, the radical Egyptian press, notably the newspaper Al Shaab (The People) found out that Jean-Michel Jarre intended to project the so-called ‘eye of Horus’ on the Great Pyramid with laser lights, and immediately denounced the organisers of staging a ‘Masonic’ stunt. The Al Shaab claimed that the ‘eye in the pyramid’ blatantly evoked the well-known Masonic symbol on the US one-dollar bill. Freemasons are also known to harbour ancient Hebrew Rituals related to Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem, which also fired accusations of ‘Zionist’ infiltration in the Arab newspapers. These accusations were hotly denied by culture minister Farouk Hosni. “The suggestion is groundless”, also stated Dr.  Hawass, the official in charge of the Pyramids. “The celebration has nothing to do with Masonic beliefs. The design on the US dollar is a faulty imitation of the Pyramids of the Middle Kingdom.”

Adding to the growing hype was another twist to this strange story. This involved the so-called ‘prophecies’ made by American Psychic Edgar Cayce known as the ‘Sleeping Prophet’. Cayce, who died in 1945, foretold the placing of a gilded capstone on the Great Pyramid which, according to him, would act as a ‘symbol’ for the rediscovery of the legendary ‘Hall of Records of Atlantis’ under the paws of the Great Sphinx and the events of the second coming of Christ:

“The apex, the crown or apex (or capstone) was of metal; that was to be indestructible, being of copper, brass, gold with other alloys… it became very fitting that there should be the crowning or placing of this ‘symbol of the records’ by one who represent the old and the new… Hence there has arisen from this ceremony many of the things that may be seen as present… the sounding of the New Year… 1998 from the death of the Son of Man…”

Oddly, Cayce also associates the event with the establishment of a sort of New World order based on Masonic principles:

“For with those changes that will be wrought, Americanism with the universal thought that is expressed and manifest in the Brotherhood of man into group thought as expressed in the Masonic Order, will be the eventual rule in the settlement of affairs in the world. Not that the world is to become a Masonic Order, but the principle that are embraced in the same will be the basis upon which the new order of peace is to be established…”

Cayce claimed that Jesus and John the Baptist (regarded as the ‘patron saint’ of Freemasons who celebrate their New Year on St. John’s Day on the 24th June) “took those last of the Brotherhood degrees” in the Great Pyramid of Giza. Since 1973 the Edgar Cayce Foundation has been involved in various expeditions at Giza to find the ‘Hall of Records’. The first official exploration was with the Stamford Research International in early 1978. In 1996 two prominent members of the Edgar Cayce Foundation caused a huge controversy by claiming to have located with radar a large man-made cavity under the paws of the Sphinx where Edgar Cayce had indicated. Further explorations took place in the course of 1997-8 but no excavation permits were granted to the Americans. But in August 1999 during a conference at the Edgar Cayce Foundation, Dr. Zahi Hawass announced that a new license had been granted to the Americans for more thorough radar soundings to find the Hall of Records under the Sphinx. Dr. Hawass also announced that a small trap “door” discovered in 1993 at the end of a narrow tunnel inside the Great Pyramid suspected by many to lead to a secret chamber, will be opened in the year 2000 by the National Geographic team from the USA. The Americans had planned to be at Giza on the 7th December 1999 to start their search at the Sphinx but this, like the capstone, was cancelled. The team hopes to be back in February this year. Much controversy has surrounded the precise relationship of the Edgar Cayce Foundation and the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation, with allegations that the latter or some of its prominent members arranged for the university education of some high ranking officials in Egypt involved with the Giza Pyramids. In early December 1999, under heavy pressure by the Egyptian newspapers, the Antiquities Organisation took a face-saving position by deferring the decision of placing the golden capstone to a scientific committee. Dr. Zahi Hawass stated that the capstone, which apparently was to be made from an 8 m high light metal frame and covered in gold sheets, could not be lowered by a helicopter “…because it will hurt the pyramid. Therefore if we find out that that putting this capstone will hurt the pyramid, then, we will not do it.” But some critics rightly pointed out a lightweight capstone on the 6 million ton stone pyramid would be like placing a flea on an elephant’s back. Finally the Egyptian minister of culture caved in and, at the eleventh hour, admitted that due to public outrage over the ‘Masonic’ implications and to avoid any disturbance the golden capstone ceremony would be scrapped. Ironically on the night of 31st December a thick fog settled over the Great Pyramid which would have made it impossible for a helicopter to lower the capstone on its summit. Jean-Michele Jarre did, however, manage to project some images on the smaller of the three Giza Pyramids including ‘eyes’ until it, too, was engulfed by the fog and the thick smoke caused by huge firework display. It now remains to be seen whether the Egyptian authorities will, as promised, open the “door” in the Great Pyramid and reveal what is behind it in the course of the year 2000. And will they also allow further explorations at the Sphinx to search for the Hall of Records? The eyes of the world are watching.

Robert Bauval


One of the mysteries of Giza is the missing pyramidion or capstone of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Since modern recorded history, the Great Pyramid has been topless, with several meters of its apex missing. Egyptologists have assumed that the pyramid was originally capped by a small pyramid called a pyramidion. If that is true, then what happened to it, and what could it have looked like?

It is possible, indeed highly probable, that the great Egyptian architect and royal vizier, Imhotep, was still alive when Khufu planned his pyramid. Imhotep was the High Priest of Heliopolis, where the sacred Benben Stone was kept, and on its shape and symbolism was modeled the gilded capstones of pyramid called ‘Benben-t’. Could Imhotep have advised Khufu to conceal the Benben in his pyramid? But where?

This article below is culled from a discussion in Appendix 1 of my latest book, co-written with Thomas Brophy, Ph.D., Imhotep The African: Architect of the Cosmos (Disinformation Books).   

In October 1900 the guards of the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation (EAO) in the area of Dashur, a site on the western desert that is some 20 kilometers south of modern Cairo, were attacked by a group of armed brigands. A few days later, Gaston Maspero, the head of the EAO went to inspect the site. It was then that he was taken to see an amazing and rather unique artifacts that had been found embedded in the sand near a pyramid of the 12th Dynasty belonging to the pharaoh Amenemhet III. There, sticking partially out of the sand, was a magnificent pyramidion made of black granite. Maspero could hardly believe his eyes at the amazing preservation of this 4000 years old artifacts which, in his excitement, he described as “polished like a mirror”.  The pyramid, which measured 1.85 meters at the base and had a height of 1.40 meters, was decorated with wonderful inscriptions. On one face was a winged solar-disk flanked by two ureus (sacred cobras), and under the solar-disk were two large eyes. Under the eyes were three lutes with a large sun disk underneath. On each side of the sun-disk were the royal cartouches bearing the names of Amennemhet III, and  at the base of the triangular face were two lines of hieroglyphs. In an article published in the Annales Du Services Des Antiquités in 1902, Maspero gave this translation:

“May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon when he crosses the sky; may he cause the king to rise as a god, lord of eternity and indestructible… Horakhti has said I have given to the king of Upper and Lower Egypt the beautiful horizon who takes the inheritance of the two lands…so that you may unit with the horizon…the horizon has said that you rest upon it, which pleases me.”

In view of the mention of Horakhti (Horus of the Horizon) who was regarded as the symbol of the rising sun in the east, Maspero concluded that this face with the winged sun-disk was the East face of the pyramidion. Maspero did not give a full translation of the other threes faces which also bore two lines of inscriptions each, but nonetheless adds that “the invocation is similarly addressed on the South face to Anubis; on the West face to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris; on the North face to Sah-Orion.”

The same view was later expressed by the American Egyptologist James Henry Breasted in 1912. Breasted wrote:

“On the side which undoubtedly faced the east appears a winged sun-disk, surmounted by a pair of eyes, beneath which are the words ‘Beauty of the Sun’, the eyes of course indicate the idea of beholding which is to be understood with the words, ‘beauty of the sun’. Below is an inscription of two lines beginning: ‘The face of king Amenemhet III is opened, that he may behold the Lord of the Horizon when he sails across the sky’…”

In 1964 the American Egyptologist Alexander Piankoff, renowed for his translation of the Pyramid Texts, gave the translation of part of the East face which mentioned the constellation of Orion:

The sou) of Amenemhet is higher than the heights of  Orion, and it unites itself with the Duat…”

Piankoff interpreted the above by writing that “here, as in the Pyramid Texts, Orion is the visible manifestation of Osiris who, like this constellation, descends to the Netherworld (Duat) and then appears again in the sky.”

In 1946 the British Egyptologist Sir I.E.S. Edwards, an authority on the pyramids of Egypt, gave his own translation of the East face:  

“May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon [i.e., Harakhte] when he crosses the sky; may he cause the king to shine as a god, lord of eternity and indestructible, (Harakhte replies that he has) given the beautiful horizon to the king”

Today Egyptologists agree that the pyramids of ancient Egypt represented the dead kings. Indeed, the pyramidwas regarded as an actually personification of the dead king.  Indeed the name given to the pyramids show clearly that these monuments were considered to be the afterlife form of the king himself. According to A. Piankoff, for example,

“The embalmed body of the king lay in or under the pyramid, which together with its entire compound, was considered his body.”

Yet Egyptologists also agree that in the Pyramid Texts, the afterlife form of the king is said to be a ‘star’ in the sky.

This, then, may explain why in the case of at least three pyramids, the monuments were given stellar names while also personifying the dead king, such as “Djedefre is a Star in the Sky”, “Nebka is a Star” and the pyramid of Djoser being called “Horus is the Star at the head of the Sky”.  All this leads us to conclude that the pyramidion on top of the king’s pyramid was regarded as the stellar-transfigured king or his star-soul. It is only when we view it as such that the inscriptions on the East side of the pyramidion of Amenemhet III makes any sense: “May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon…”

But two questions now must be also considered. For if indeed the pyramidion represented the form of the king as a star, then what could possibly have given the ancient Egyptians the idea that a star had the physical shape of a ‘pyramid” and, furthermore, that it was composed of very hard “black stone” such as black granite?

Most Egyptologists agree that the shape of pyramids was inspired by the Benben Stone that was venerated in the ‘Mansion Of The Phoenix’ at the city of Heliopolis. Many scholars claim that the Benben was symbolic of the sun. In 1912 the eminent American Egyptologist James H. Breasted noted the similarity of the word ‘Benben’ with the word ‘Benbenet’ –the pyramid-shaped apex of an obelisk– and concluded that “an obelisk is simply a pyramid upon a lofty base which has become a shaft… the obelisk, as is commonly known, is a symbol sacred to the Sun-god…[it followed that] the king was buried under the very symbol of the Sun-god which stood in the holy of holies in the Sun-temple at Heliopolis” This conclusion by an authority of the caliber of Breasted was quickly embraced by other authorities such as Sir I.E.S. Edwards who also proposed that the occasional sight of an immaterial triangle formed by the sun’s rays striking downwards through low clouds at sunset could have been the inspiration for the Benben’s shape “and its architectural derivative, the true Pyramid”.  Edwards quoted several passages from the Pyramid Texts that seem to support this idea:  

“I have laid down for myself this sunshine of yours as a stairway under my feet…”

“May the sky make the sunlight strong for you, may you rise up to the sky…”

According to Edwards “the temptation to regard the true Pyramid as a material representation of the sun’s rays and consequently as a means whereby the dead king could ascend to heaven seems irresistible.” Yet it is also true that the Pyramid Texts give many other means for the dead pharaoh to ascend to the sky: on a ladder ( “The king climbs to the sky on a ladder”); on the wind (“the king is bound for the sky on the wind” (pyr. 309); on a storm-cloud/thunderbolt (“The king is a flame before the wind…there is brought to him a way of ascent to the sky”); on a hailstorm (“the hailstorms of the sky have taken me”); on a reed-floa: (“the reed-floats of the sky are set in place for me…I am ferried over to the eastern sky”); by climbing a rope (“set the rope aright, cross the Milky Way…”); on the thighs of Isis: (I ascend [to the sky] upon the thighs of Isis” ).  So the Pyramid Texts are full of such metaphors, and thus the idea of the dead king climbing on the sun’s rays is only another to describe poetically the celestial ascent, and cannot be taken as evidence for the shape of the Benben or the pyramid. There is, however, in the Pyramid Texts a passage which directly equate the actual pyramid to the king and Osiris: “This king is Osiris, this pyramid of the king is Osiris, this construction of his is Osiris, betake yourself to it, do not be far from it in its name of pyramid…”.

In the rebirth rituals of the Pyramid Texts the dead king’s name is compounded with the name of Osiris, showing that after his death the king became “an Osiris”. Now Osiris in the Pyramid Texts was a star-god whose soul was identified to the constellation of Orion:

“Behold Osiris has come as Orion”

“O king, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion”

Could, therefore, the Benben Stone, and its derivatives the pyramid and the pyramidion, be regarded as ‘star’ symbols?  It is true that the ‘Mansion Of The Phoenix’ in which was kept the Benben Stone was in the City of Iunu, later called Heliopolis (City of the Sun) by the Greeks, an association of the Benben with the sun does not necessarily follow. Why, one must wonder, was a pyramid or conical shaped stone would be regarded as a manifestation of the sun when in all ancient Egyptian art the sun is represented as a disk or circle? Egyptologists have argued that the reason for this was because the Benben Stone may also have been a symbol of the so-called “Primeval Mound” in the Pyramid Texts on which it is said that the first sunrise took place, implying that the shape of the pyramid was inspired by the idea of a sacred mound. Edwards rejects this idea by pointing out that the Primeval Mound was linked to the much older Mastaba tomb structure of the first three Dynasties, which was not pyramid-shaped but rather in the form of a rectangular slab. Clearly, another more plausible explanation for the pyramidal or conical shape of the Benben Stone must be sought.

It is known that a sacred pillar was worshipped at Heliopolis before the Benben. The phallic symbolism of a pillar needs no emphasis; and its association to the “phallus” of Atum is implied in the Pyramid Texts

“Atum is he who once came into being, who masturbated in Heliopolis. He took his phallus in his grasp that he might create orgasm by means of it…”

“O Atum, the rising sun (-khoprer, the sacred beetle), you became high on the heights, , you rose as the Benben Stone in the Mansion Of The Phoenix in On…”

The Egyptologist Henry Frankfort made the plausible suggestion that the Benben was placed atop the sacred pillar, giving rise to the idea of the obelisk with a Benbenet/pyramidion at its top, and that the pyramidion may thus represent the “semen” or “seed” being ejaculated from a cosmic phallus associated to Atum. There are several well-known depiction of the Earth-God Geb (the son of Atum) laying down with an exaggeratedly long phallus pointing to the Sky-Goddess Nut, the “mother of Osiris”:

“…make the womb of Nut pregnant with the seed of the spirit which is in her”

“Pressure is in your womb, O Nut, through the seed of the god which is in you; it is I [the Osiris-king] who am the seed of the god which is in you…”

“…the king is an imperishable star, son of the sky-goddess Nut…”

“The king was fashioned by his father Atum…”

“O Atum, this king comes to you, an imperishable spirit (star)…your son comes to you, this king comes to you”

In my opinion, then, the idea of a pillar surging skywards and on top of which was the Benben Stone, is highly symbolic of a giant phallus offering its “star-seed” to the sky-goddess in order to gestate it in her womb and cause the departed king to be “reborn”. Bearing this in mind, it comes as no surprise to discover that the word “Benben” is often given the meaning to “copulate” or “seed a womb” confirmed by the hieroglyphic sign of an erect phallus shown ejaculating semen. Indeed, there are several words in the ancient Egyptian language that use the root word ‘Ben’ to describe sexual acts. Also in the famous Turin Papyrus which depicts sexual scenes, one image shows a beautiful naked woman inserting the tip of a pyramidion into her vagina, making clear that such objects were regarded phallis or capable of seeding a womb. The stellar aspect of these “seeding” rituals are depicted in the following passages of the Pyramid texts, where the departed king is somehow put into the womb of the sky-goddess (the ‘sarcophagus’) and is gestated there to eventually be reborn as star:

“The king is your seed”

“…the king comes to you, O mother of the king, he has come to Nut, that you may bring the sky to the king and hang the stars for him…”

“the sky-Goddess Nut conceives you with Orion…”

“Recitation by Nut, the greatly beneficent: the king is my eldest son who splits open my womb…”

“…O King, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion…the sky has borne you with Orion…” (pyr.882-3).

“The King is a star brilliant…the King appears as a star…”

“You [Nut] have set this King as an imperishable Star who is in you…”

“The King is a star”

“I [the king] am a soul …a star of gold…”

“I [the king] am a star which illumines the sky…”

As we have said earlier in this article, the names of several monumental pyramids were given stellar names such as ‘Djedefre is a sehed  star’; ‘Nebka is a star’. Also the ‘ba’ i.e. soul, of the dead king is clearly to be regarded as a s ‘star’ in the Pyramid Texts, which indirectly also gives a stellar name to many other pyramids such as ‘The soul (ba) of Sahure gleams’ and ‘Neferirkare has become a soul (ba)’. The compounding of the pharaoh’s name with his pyramid implies, if not proves, that the monument (or perhaps mostly the pyramidion at the top) is to be regarded as the transfigured form of the king into a star-soul.

Still, why did the ancient Egyptians imagine that the star were shaped like a pyramid or a cone?

In antiquity the sight of “shooting stars” or  “falling stars” is, of course, a meteorite. Meteorites are debris from outer space, mostly from broken up asteroids, which enter the gravitational pull of the Earth and fall down to the ground –as opposed to meteors which completely burn up during atmospheric transit. Meteorites are either iron-meteorites (about 90% iron and 10-12% nickel) or stone meteorites. The largest that survive impact are the iron-meteorites for obvious reasons. Most meteorites are very small, but occasionally a large meteorite enters our atmosphere. If it is very large  it will retain most of its cosmic velocity, thus compressing the air in front of it as it approaches the ground, causing it to explode with dramatic effect. But if the meteorite is of medium size, somewhere between 10 and 60 tons, its cosmic velocity is slowed down by the earth’s atmosphere, causing the meteorite to eventually free fall and hit the ground almost intact. Some of these medium size meteorites retain their orientation as they speed through the earth’s atmosphere, which causes only the front part to melt and flow toward the rear. The result is a iron object having the shape of a rough pyramid or cone.

Bearing this in mind, I also discovered that the ancient Egyptians believed that iron actually came from heaven, which is clearly an allusion to the meteoritic origin of iron before the Iron Age. In other ancient cultures there were many sacred stones such as the Benben which were believed to have ‘fallen from heaven’. The Ephesians (see Acts xix-35 of the Bible) worshipped such a stone in the temple of Diana “that symbol of her which fell from heaven”. In Delphi a stone shaped like a cone was believed to have come from the sky. A conical iron-meteorite was also worshiped by the Phrygian in the 7th century BC. There was also the famous conical “black stone” called Elagalabus that was worshipped in Emessa. A modern example of such “stone from heaven” is the  black stone of the the Ka’aba in Mecca in Saudi Arabia which is a meteorite that was recovered in antiquity. The British Egyptologist Gerald Wainwright has shown how iron in early Egypt was obtained from iron-meteorites. The ancient Egyptian word for iron was ‘bja’ which was called “material of which heaven was made”. Significantly, in the Pyramid Texts we are told that,

“The king’s bones are iron and the king’s members are the imperishable stars…”

“I [the king] am pure, I take to myself my iron bones…my imperishable limbs are in the womb of Nut”

“…my bones are iron and my limbs are the imperishable stars”.

It is not very hard to see that chunks of meteoritic iron, which generally have a luster black appearance, were classified by the ancient Egyptians along with other hard black or dark stones such as diorite, basalt and granite. To a people unfamiliar with iron and its chemical properties, the resemblance of basalt to a rough iron meteorite can be uncanny. Not surprising then, black basalt was called ‘black iron’ (bja kam), suggesting that basalt, and possibly black granite, were associated to meteoritic iron, and consequently to the ‘bones’ of star-gods. Most pyramidions that were once placed on the top of pyramids were made of dark granite, such as the fine example of Amenemhet III. Also the hieroglyphic sign for ‘pyramid’ was a pyramid often with a yellow pyramidion, suggesting that the latter may have been covered with gold leaf. An inscription on the pyramid of queen Udjebten (6th Dynasty) speaks of the golden capstone on her pyramid. In the Pyramid Texts we read,

“O King, raise yourself upon your iron bones and golden members, for this body of yours belongs to a god… may your flesh be born to life and may your life be more than the life of the stars in their season of life…”

“I [the king] row Ra when traversing the sky, even I a star of gold…”

“…be a soul like a living star”.

Could the idea of the pyramidal shape of a “living star” made from golden flesh and black iron bones and shining high up in the sky, have been the reason for the pyramidion made of black granite covered in gold leaf and raised high up the pyramid? Was this how the lost pyramidion of Khufu looked like? And what could have happened to it? Could it have been removed by the priests of Heliopolis, under the orders of Imhotep, from its original sanctuary and hidden somewhere? Where?

In a ‘secret chamber’ inside the Great Pyramid?

Only time will tell…