Archive for the ‘History’ Category

A monumental discovery with four years of comprehensive Geo-archaeological research has failed to reach mainstream audiences for some reason.  The most active pyramid site in the world dating the pyramid complex back 25,000 years has also released scientific evidence supporting the theory that the pyramids were used as an energy source.  The recent study reveals energy beams transmitting electromagnetic signals unexplainable by our science in what is now documented as the largest Pyramid complex in the world.  Overwhelming evidence, supported by scientific research from all over the archaeological community proves that our recorded history is wrong concerning turn changes religion, science and academics.

All Giza Pyramids
Dr. Osmanagich has investigated pyramids all over the world, however his recent discovery of the Bosnian pyramids in Visoko, are nothing more than remarkable.  What may be more remarkable is how he has been attacked in the media, by scientists and researchers for his incredible find.

The very first thing world powers do when their control systems are threatened (and they can’t eliminate the idea) is they create a misinformation system to make people believe that powerful new or ancient technologies are a hoax.  Prominent archaeologists have attempted smear campaigns on Dr. Osmanagich’s work out of fear of how the impact of his discoveries will make on their own work.

It’s more than time to rewrite our history books, however there are such vast divisions between the old paradigm thinking and the new, that conflicts between the two camps have continued to cause the regression in the understanding of ancient technology rather than its advancement.

Take note of the following facts Dr. Osmanagich details in the above video:

1) These are the first pyramids in Europe
2) They are the biggest and largest on the planet
3) The cardinal sides have the most precise orientation on the planet
4) The concrete found is better than the best available concrete today
5) They are the oldest pyramids on the planet
6) Underneath the pyramids is the most extensive, prehistorical network of tunnels and chambers ever found
7) In these tunnels they have discovered huge cermaric blocks weighing in excess of 18,000 pounds

The discovery of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids changes the understanding of European and world history forever.  This also goes for the oldest and strongest concrete dated and the largest network of underground tunnels and chambers.

Radiocarbon dating that proves the Bosnian Pyramid Complex dates back at least 25,000 years has been revealed by an international team of scientists led by Dr. Sam Osmanagich. Discovered in 2005, the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Archaeological Park, which houses the largest pyramid in the world, is now the most active archaeological site on the planet.  The team’s findings also reveal an energy beam, 13 feet in radius that transmits an unexplainable electromagnetic signal measuring 28 kilohertz coming from the center of the Pyramid of the Sun.  This phenomenon has been independently confirmed by physicist Dr. Slobodan Mizdrak, Ph.D. from Croatia, professor Paolo Debertolis, anthropologist from University of Trieste in Italy, sound engineer Heikki Savolainen from Finland and electrical engineer Goran Marjanovic from Serbia.

The energy beam is theorized by Dr. Osmanagich as the reason the pyramids were built; to provide ancient civilizations a powerful source of clean energy.  This is already a widely supported theory set forth by the book “The Giza Power Plant” by Christopher Dunn published in 1998.  The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is 30% larger than the largest pyramid at Giza and recent excavation has uncovered an extensive pre-historical underground labyrinth system, further evidence supporting the power plant theory.

Is it possible that the fossil fuel based energy system we now rely on could have been prevented if inventor Nicola Tesla’s work on free energy hadn’t been suppressed? Tesla’s (1856-1943) patented free energy methods were rejected due to their inability to be metered and monetized.  “We urgently need to change our mistaken point of view that our ancestors were stupid and accept that they had an advanced understanding of the fabric of nature and the universe, just like Nikola Tesla, whose ideas were suppressed as they did not and do not fit in the reigning economic model,” states Phillip Coppens, author and investigative journalist.  “The pyramids are proof that our ancestors knew and worked with an energy technology that we are now finally able to measure, but are still short of fully understanding.”Coppens along with Klaus Dona of Austria and dozens of speakers attended the International Conference Bosnia Pyramid in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina which is held annually to release findings to the public.

Osmanagich has had a host of experts in various fields come to see his Bosnian pyramids, and measure anomalies associated with them.  They have included the noted British scientist and inventor Harry Oldfield, who used a special camera system to photograph alleged electromagnetic (EM) waves in the vicinity of Visocica Hill.

The pyramid structures that were built in Bosnia and across the globe over 10,000 years ago cannot be duplicated by modern science and machinery in the 21st century and there is no explanation for who could have built them in our recorded history.

“We realize that this site changes our knowledge of history and as such the findings will need to withstand harsh scrutiny. Our inter-disciplinary scientific team carefully utilizes legitimate scientific research methodology, often having tests done from two or more separate laboratories,” explained Dr. Osmanagich, PhD. “Despite some initial skepticism, we now have a world-wide team of hundreds of thought leaders from numerous scientific disciplines including archeologists, geophysicists, chemical engineers, physicists, electrical engineers, and mathematicians gathering scientific evidence to find the answers.”

Geometric features of the pyramids

bosnian_pyramid

Based on numerous airborne and space-borne images of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, it becomes evident that the geometric features present with three sides that exhibit geometrical shape of a triangle.  Even though such elements occur in nature, it is rarely, if ever, a precise shape and rarely replicated on opposite sides of a mound. In this case, two sides are equilateral triangles, with well- defined sides. Satellite imaging of the local area in the central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Landsat, Radarsat, Hyperion, Ikonos, courtesy of Dr. Amer Smailbegovic), indicated that there are five hills which show apparent geospatial anomalies where two or more sides are triangular.  All of the aforementioned hills exhibit triangular sides and some have elements of stairs and step features on the sides with flat plateaus on the top. In the case of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, three out of four sides exhibit evidence of geometric features. Geologic evidence is not indicative of any significant faulting or the processes of the glaciations in the area that would otherwise affect the existence, geometry and texture of these sides.

Perfect orientation — Cardinal sides of the world

The measurements made by the Geodetic Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina indicate that the sides of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (BPS) are exactly aligned with the cardinal sides of the world (North-South, East-West), which is one of the characteristics often noted with the existing pyramids in Egypt, Peru, Guatemala or China.  The North side of the BPS is oriented towards stellar North (like the Great Pyramid of Egypt), in parallel with the position of the North Star.

Geological-sedimentary analyses

The results of core drilling, test-well sinking and limited trenching in August and October 2005, with a follow-up in 2006 and 2007, have confirmed prior observations and, revealed that the surface of the pyramids is comprised of layered sandstone and breccia blocks, which have been manually processed and/or cut to fit the required dimensions.  The binding agent found between the sandstone blocks suggest the presence of a “clastic breccia,” a multicolored conglomerate comprised out of gravel, sandstone and shale with a connective matrix or cement composed of sandy carbon particles of quartz, feldspar and flakes of mica.  The flat sides of the blocks, the contact zone, and the binding agent are clearly visible. Further detailed cleaning of the contact line between the two sandstone blocks revealed that the blocks were manually processed beneath and that the surface was flat and smooth, with binding agent applied afterwards to the surface.

Equilateral triangle of three main pyramids

Three main pyramids in the Bosnian Pyramid Valley form an equilateral triangle.  The Kadastral Office from the County of Visoko performed GPS measurements of the hilltops and determined that all angles are symmetric (60 degrees). Their measurements showed that the distances among all three hilltops are the same (approx. 2,2 km) with less than 2% error, verifying the artificial structures.

Geometry, shape, orientation, constructive material — they all prove the perfect planning and execution of the complex.

Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun

The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is the world’s largest 220 meters high and completely covered by soil and vegetation. During the 1950s and 1960s, local government organized tree planting activities.  Trees managed to grow only on the bottom half of the Pyramid.  Thickness of the soil on Western, Northern and Eastern side of the Pyramid varies from the top (20cm) to the bottom (1.5 meter). This is due to the erosion.  The Southern side, which seams to be damaged, has a soil layer of 3-6 meters. That is the reason why this side has lost its regularity. Physical material evidence of shaped and well preserved stone monoliths were unearthed during the ongoing geo-archaeological campaign in 2006-2008.

Satellite radar has penetrated the surface of Northern side of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun of four meters. Straight black lines show underground passageways — pyramidal substructure. Some of them intersect at 90 degrees.

Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon

With its height of 190 meters, Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon is the world’s second largest: next to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (220 meters) and higher than Khufu’s Great Pyramid of Egypt (148 meters).  It is a three-sided pyramid with the plateau coming from the East, leading to the top of the structure. Other sides (North, West, South) match the cardinal points.  For the construction of this pyramid, sandstone plates and tiles were used together with the clay as a constructive material.

Archaeological field work on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon shows that under layers of soil and wood.  There exists a huge stone/clay structure, three-sided “terraced” pyramid with paved causeway coming from East.

A Network of Underground Tunnels

Examples of the main pyramidal complexes worldwide show that under the pyramids, underground passageways and chambers had been built.  It’s the case of pyramids in Giza (tunnels connect the pyramids, sphinx, Nile), Teotihuacan (underground enlarged 4-chamber cave with passageways), Step pyramid in Saqqara (underground “labyrinth”), China (underground tunnels built from sandstone, bricks and clay), Tenerife (cave-tunnels in Guimar). Numerous field findings suggest that an extensive tunnel network exists in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. It is hypothesized (Principal investigator Semir Sam Osmanagich) that the tunnel system connects all of the colossal objects, water wells and other structures of importance.  The current excavations in progress have already presented with findings of several shaped monoliths in the tunnels.  Hundreds of meters of tunnels have been secured by wooden support. The tunnels were definitively not the mining shafts as no tools, coal, silver, gold or any other worthy material were found and they appear much older than Middle Age or Roman times.

[For reference here is an interview I did years ago regarding the Pyramids and the power they really possess while the same information has been hidden from all of us for literally “Thousands of years.”  This being said just think what they (the breakaway civilization +Industrial Military Banking Complex – “JHS”) have really, managed to achieve, to this point in our perceived, “time”.]

http://blip.tv/richplanetnet/the-richplanet-starship-tony-kilvert-4894504

– See more of this article at: http://timetounite.com/suppressed-scientific-evidence-proves-free-energy-source-dating-back-25000-years/#sthash.30Kdkj00.dpuf

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By: Deborah West Contributor Profile | More Stories

Wednesday, November 6, 2013 19:42

Evidence Found Across the Globe of Highly Evolved Human Species from before the Ice Age, Demand Scientific Recognition of our Past that Depicts Societies of Advanced Technology and Culture

To Hear Dr. Sam’s Interview on Lost Knowledge go to: http://theilluminatinetwork.com/2013/09/lost-knowledge-3773/

 (Houston, TX Nov 6, 2013) Houston anthropologist, Dr. Semir Osmanagich, founder of the Bosnian Archaeology Park, the most active archaeology site in the world, declares that irrefutable scientific evidence exists of ancient civilizations with advanced technology that leaves us no choice but to change our recorded history.  An examination of the age of structures across the earth reveals conclusively that they were built by advanced civilizations from over 29,000 years ago. 

Acknowledging that we are witness to fundamental proof of advanced civilizations dating back over 29,000 years and an examination of their societal structures forces the World to reconsider its understanding of the development of civilization and history,” explains Dr. Semir Osmanagich.  “Conclusive data at the Bosnian Pyramid site revealed in 2008 and confirmed this year by several independent labs who conducted radio carbon testing dates the site at 29,400 +/-400 years minimum.

                              

The radiocarbon dating tests of 29,200 years +/- 400 years was done by Radiocarbon Lab from Kiew, Ukraine on organic material found at the Bosnian Pyramid site. Physicist Dr. Anna Pazdur of Poland’s Silesian University first announced the news at a Press Conference in Sarajevo in August of 2008. Professor of classical archaeology from the University of Alexandria Dr. Mona Haggag called this discovery “writing new pages in European and World history.” The C14 date of 29,000 years at the Bosnian Archaeological Park was obtained from a piece of organic material retrieved from a clay layer inside the outer casing to the pyramid. It follows a sample date obtained during the 2012 dig season on Material located above the concrete at 24,800 years, meaning this structure has a construction profile stretching back almost 30,000 years.

 

The ancient people who built these pyramids knew the secrets of frequency and energy. They used these natural resources to develop technologies and undertake construction on scales we have never witnessed on earth,said Dr Osmanagich.  Evidence clearly shows that the pyramids were built as ancient energy machines aligned with the earth’s energy grid, providing energy for healing as well as power.

                                    

 Ancient historians and researchers in the US have news just as astonishing as anything found in the far corners of the globe.  For instance, the Rockwall discovery outside of Dallas TX is only one example of how we are now re-examining ancient mysteries to reveal more about our past right in the United States. H2 (History 2) most popular series, Unearthing Ancient America recently filmed an episode about the Rockwall that will air later this year. The Texas site is a complex and massive wall over ten miles in diameter built over 20,000 years ago seven stories below the ground. The question is by whom was this structure built and for what purpose and most importantly how can knowledge left by these past civilizations help shape our future?

 

 

Newly revealed or rediscovered traces of ancient civilizations, has ignited an innate curiosity about human origins as reflected by recent coverage in mainstream media and TV.  The November 2013 issue of National Geographic: 100 Greatest Mysteries Revealed-Ancient Civilizations Unearthed says, “Sometimes cultures leave behind mysteries that baffle those who come after them, from standing stones to coded manuscripts, indications that ancient people indeed had a profound purpose.”  This special issue focuses on ancient sites and the mysterious clues left behind by civilizations we know little about.

Forward thinking scientists continue to pursue knowledge from our past that is useful to determine a better future.  Renowned author Michal Cremo in his book Forbidden Archeology theorizes that knowledge of advanced Homo sapiens has been suppressed or ignored by the scientific establishment because it contradicts the current views of human origins that don’t agree with the dominant paradigm. Cremo’s body of work has been described as “a useful teaching resource, raising a wide range of issues covering aspects of knowledge transfer, sure to be provocative in the classroom.” It has been reviewed with widespread appraisal by hundreds of academic journals.

 

Gobekli Tepe in Eastern Turkey

 

Results clearly indicate that similar advanced civilizations of humans were present all across the globe at that time in history. For example, Gobekli Tepe located in Eastern Turkey, is a vast complex of enormous megalithic stone circles with a radius of between 10 and 20 meters, much larger than the well-known Stonehenge in Great Britain. Excavations at Gobekli Tepe that began there in 1995 revealed radio carbon dating at least 11,600 years. German archaeologist Dr. Klaus Schmidt from the German Archaeological Institute, Berlin Germany with the support of ArchaeoNova Institute from Heidelberg, Germany has led the excavation of these recently discovered pre-historic megalithic circles at the Turkey location.

 “Gobekli Tepe is one of the most fascinating Neolithic locations in the world,” Dr. Klaus Schmidt claims.  But as he explains in a recent report, to understand the new finds, archaeologists need to work closely with specialists in comparative religion, architectural and art theory, cognitive and evolutionary psychology, sociologists using social network theory, and others.

 

“It is the complex story of the earliest large, settled communities, their extensive networking, and their communal understanding of their world, perhaps even the first organized religions and their symbolic representations of the cosmos,” as reported by Klaus Schmidt.  

In addition to the megalithic structures, figures and carvings have been discovered, depicting animals of pre historic nature such as dinosaurs and other wild life. Since excavations started in 1995, four of the circles have been partially cleaned, but it is thought that there are a total of up to 50 circles hidden underground.   These vast monoliths, soaring seven meters in height and 25 tons in mass at Gobekli Tepe, are situated right in the heart of what we perceive as the origin of civilization. This find offers new guidance to the true history of earth and our ancient civilizations.

“Our archaeological research goal is not to simply uncover all of the megalithic circles but to try to figure out their purpose,” adds Schmidt. 

 

Bosnian Pyramid now in Eighth Year: Proof of Advanced Civilizations from over 30,000 years ago

The Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids now in the eighth year of excavation spans six square kilometers in the Visoko River Basin 40km northwest of Sarajevo.  Comprised of four ancient pyramids almost three times the size of Giza and an extensive subterranean pyramid tunnel complex, new discoveries each year continue to reveal proof of a much different history of mankind on earth.  The central pyramid of the Sun rises a colossal 420 meters in to the air and has a mass of millions of tons. By comparison the Great pyramid of Cheops (Khufu) in the Giza plateau is 146 meters high, making the Bosnian Pyramids the largest and oldest known pyramids on the planet. Since research began at the Bosnian site, Dr. Osmanagich has amazed the scientific and archaeological community by gathering a team of interdisciplinary engineers, physicists, and researchers from around the world to conduct open and transparent investigation of the site to try and discover the true nature and purpose of this pyramidal complex.

“This is an unknown culture presenting highly advanced arts and sciences, technology capable of forming truly massive structures and we believe in that process demonstrating an ability to harness pure energy resources,” comments Tim Moon, who has recently joined Osmanagich as lead archeologist at the Bosnian site.

 The archaeological project delivered another significant finding this year in the pyramid tunnel complex known as Ravine. Tunneling deep into a ridge line leading toward the Pyramid of the Sun the team has unearthed several megalith stones.  In August an enormous stone estimated at 25,000 kgs was uncovered approximately 400 meters into the labyrinth. This is a hugely significant find,”comments Moon. Here we have a massive stone, possibly a constructed ceramic, buried under hundreds of thousands of tons of material. We are locating foundation walls around its perimeter and cut stone blocks.” Large quantities of artifacts have been recovered from the associated tunnels leading to the site, including effigies painted on stone, art objects and a series of hieroglyphics or ancient texts carved into the tunnel walls. 

Dr. Osmangich stresses that it is time for open sharing of knowledge so we can understand and learn from our past. “It is time for us to open our minds to the true nature of our origin and destruction of each other as a civilization on this planet.  Our mission here is to realign science with spirituality in order to progress as a species and this demands a clear path of shared knowledge.”

Visitors are welcome to the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids and its Foundation offers a volunteer program each dig season- running June-Sept.

For more on the Bosnian Pyramids go to www.icbp.ba.


Why did the Egyptians cancel the most dramatic ceremony of the Millennium?

Excerpt from the book Secret Chamber  © Robert G. Bauvalhttps://i1.wp.com/www.wallsave.com/wallpapers/1920x1200/great/1066646/great-pyramid-of-giza-hd-1066646.jpg

Amid accusations of bizarre ‘Zionist’ plots and strange ‘Masonic’ machinations, the Egyptian government cancelled the placing of a golden capstone on top of the Great Pyramid which was scheduled to take place at midnight on on the eve of the new millennium. Curiously, the story has its origins in France when, in May 1998, a golden capstone was ceremoniously placed on top of the Egyptian obelisk which stands at the Place de la Concorde in the heart of Paris with guests of honour Egypt’s president Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosni and the Antiquities’ chairman Dr. Ali Gaballah. This Paris obelisk, which was taken from the temple of Luxor in Upper Egypt in 1831, had been commissioned by Charles X and was raised in the Place de la Concorde in 1836 amid massive celebrations attended by a crowd of 200,000 people. Charles X was a Freemason and historians have suspected that the secret Brotherhood was behind the idea of bringing the Egyptian obelisk to France. Other obelisks which were also taken out of Egypt by the Freemasons in the late 19th century included the two famous “Cleopatra’s Needles”, which today can be seen at the Victoria Embankment in London and in New York’s Central Park. The London obelisk was commissioned and paid for by a prominent Freemason, Sir Erasmus Wilson, and the raising ceremony in London was attend by hundreds of British Freemasons in September 1878 under the auspices of the Prince of Wales who also was Grand Master of United Grand Lodge, Freemasonry’s regulating body in Britain. That same year the ‘New York’ obelisk was noticed by US President Ulysses S. Grant and General William T. Sherman during a visit to Egypt, who felt that America should also have an ancient Egyptian obelisk of its own. Henry W. Gorringe, a prominent Freemason, was selected for the task of bringing the obelisk to New York. The obelisk was raised in October 1880 outside the newly built Metropolitan Museum, with over ten thousand Freemasons attending the ceremony in Masonic regalia. The important symbolic aspect of an obelisk is not its tall stem but mainly its top which is shaped like a small pyramid. Pyramids, especially with the ‘eye of providence’ in them, feature very prominently in Masonic rituals. The symbol can be seen on the face of the US one-dollar bill and also on the Great Seal of the United States. In Freemasonry the glowing pyramid and eye represents the so-called Great Architect of the Universe or the Supreme Being, both epithets for God. This Masonic symbolism was used prominently in France during the 1789 Revolution and was embossed on the front of The Declaration of Human Rights. The first celebrations of the French Revolution that took place in 1793 saw many makeshift ‘pyramids’ raised in the heart of Paris and in the courtyard of the Louvre Museum, causing many historians to suspect a Masonic involvement. Today a glass pyramid with the same geometrical proportions as the Great Pyramid of Giza adorns the courtyard of the Louvre.

During the May 1998 celebrations in Paris, when the obelisk at the Place de la Concorde was crowned with a golden pyramid, the Egyptian culture minister announced that a similar ceremony would take place at the Great Pyramid of Giza for the millennium celebrations:

“We cannot rebuild the pyramids stone by stone,” said Farouk Hosni, “so we have chosen a symbolic event like the ancient Egyptians did when they used to cap obelisks like what the French did at the Place de la Concorde”.

Later in October 1998 the Farouk Hosni announced that French composer Jean-Michel Jarre was to organise this event at Giza. The official Egyptian Tourist Authorities announced that Jean-Michel Jarre would compose a 12-hour opera titled “The Twelve Dreams of the Sun” for the sum of 10 million US dollars and that,

“At midnight a helicopter will fly into the site and, hovering in a starburst of lasers and spotlights, will place a gigantic gilded capstone atop the Great Pyramid –all to the accompaniment of what is expected to be an unprecedented Jarre crescendo of electronic music. The gold cap, approximately 28 feet high (about the size of a two-story house) is being especially constructed to protect the pyramid structure. In place, it will catch the first light of the new millennium as the sun rises over Egypt. Capping pyramids with gold and timing important events to the setting and rising sun are very much part of the ancient Egyptian pharaonic tradition, making this piece of Jarre theatre particularly meaningful.”

In 1989 Jean-Michele Jarre had organised a quasi-similar event in Paris for the Bicentennial of the French Revolution when he set up a large metal-framed pyramid as a stage for his band in front of the Grande Arche at La Defense in the western end of the Champs Elysees. Another show by Jarre also took place a few years later in London’s Canary Wharf which is topped by a glowing glass pyramid apparently having the same geometrical proportions as the Great Pyramid in Egypt, and as the one that stands in the courtyard of the Louvre Museum in Paris, built by the American architect Ming Pei. It would appear that the idea of a new golden capstone for the Great Pyramid originated with Dr. Zahi Hawass, Under-secretary of State for the Giza Monuments. In early 1998 Dr. Hawass unearthed two limestone blocks with ancient inscriptions and drawings depicting workers moving a golden capstone for a royal pyramid amid scenes of dancing and celebrations and proposed that Egypt should celebrate the millennium in a similar way. At first 3 million people were scheduled to attend the event free of charge but the Egyptian authorities put a limit of 250,000 for ‘security reasons’. Huge promotional events were organised in various capitals of the Western world, including New York, Los Angeles, Sydney and various cities in Europe. Preparations then began for a huge stage in the desert south of the Great Pyramid, intended to have seating capacity for 25,000 people at the price of $400 per ticket. Cheaper tickets of $15 were also sold for ‘standing’ places in the nearby desert. All was apparently going to plan until September 1999, when senior members of the Egyptian Parliament began to complaint of the costs involved and also that the millennium celebrations coincided this year with the Islamic month of Ramadan, when devout Muslims in Egypt fast from dawn to dusk and foreigners are asked to refrain from drinking alcohol or eating in public areas during the hours of fasting. To counteract such criticism, culture minister Farouk Hosni stated that a ban would be placed on alcohol during the celebrations and that no music would be played until after the official end of the fast was announced. To add fuel to this political fire, the radical Egyptian press, notably the newspaper Al Shaab (The People) found out that Jean-Michel Jarre intended to project the so-called ‘eye of Horus’ on the Great Pyramid with laser lights, and immediately denounced the organisers of staging a ‘Masonic’ stunt. The Al Shaab claimed that the ‘eye in the pyramid’ blatantly evoked the well-known Masonic symbol on the US one-dollar bill. Freemasons are also known to harbour ancient Hebrew Rituals related to Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem, which also fired accusations of ‘Zionist’ infiltration in the Arab newspapers. These accusations were hotly denied by culture minister Farouk Hosni. “The suggestion is groundless”, also stated Dr.  Hawass, the official in charge of the Pyramids. “The celebration has nothing to do with Masonic beliefs. The design on the US dollar is a faulty imitation of the Pyramids of the Middle Kingdom.”

Adding to the growing hype was another twist to this strange story. This involved the so-called ‘prophecies’ made by American Psychic Edgar Cayce known as the ‘Sleeping Prophet’. Cayce, who died in 1945, foretold the placing of a gilded capstone on the Great Pyramid which, according to him, would act as a ‘symbol’ for the rediscovery of the legendary ‘Hall of Records of Atlantis’ under the paws of the Great Sphinx and the events of the second coming of Christ:

“The apex, the crown or apex (or capstone) was of metal; that was to be indestructible, being of copper, brass, gold with other alloys… it became very fitting that there should be the crowning or placing of this ‘symbol of the records’ by one who represent the old and the new… Hence there has arisen from this ceremony many of the things that may be seen as present… the sounding of the New Year… 1998 from the death of the Son of Man…”

Oddly, Cayce also associates the event with the establishment of a sort of New World order based on Masonic principles:

“For with those changes that will be wrought, Americanism with the universal thought that is expressed and manifest in the Brotherhood of man into group thought as expressed in the Masonic Order, will be the eventual rule in the settlement of affairs in the world. Not that the world is to become a Masonic Order, but the principle that are embraced in the same will be the basis upon which the new order of peace is to be established…”

Cayce claimed that Jesus and John the Baptist (regarded as the ‘patron saint’ of Freemasons who celebrate their New Year on St. John’s Day on the 24th June) “took those last of the Brotherhood degrees” in the Great Pyramid of Giza. Since 1973 the Edgar Cayce Foundation has been involved in various expeditions at Giza to find the ‘Hall of Records’. The first official exploration was with the Stamford Research International in early 1978. In 1996 two prominent members of the Edgar Cayce Foundation caused a huge controversy by claiming to have located with radar a large man-made cavity under the paws of the Sphinx where Edgar Cayce had indicated. Further explorations took place in the course of 1997-8 but no excavation permits were granted to the Americans. But in August 1999 during a conference at the Edgar Cayce Foundation, Dr. Zahi Hawass announced that a new license had been granted to the Americans for more thorough radar soundings to find the Hall of Records under the Sphinx. Dr. Hawass also announced that a small trap “door” discovered in 1993 at the end of a narrow tunnel inside the Great Pyramid suspected by many to lead to a secret chamber, will be opened in the year 2000 by the National Geographic team from the USA. The Americans had planned to be at Giza on the 7th December 1999 to start their search at the Sphinx but this, like the capstone, was cancelled. The team hopes to be back in February this year. Much controversy has surrounded the precise relationship of the Edgar Cayce Foundation and the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation, with allegations that the latter or some of its prominent members arranged for the university education of some high ranking officials in Egypt involved with the Giza Pyramids. In early December 1999, under heavy pressure by the Egyptian newspapers, the Antiquities Organisation took a face-saving position by deferring the decision of placing the golden capstone to a scientific committee. Dr. Zahi Hawass stated that the capstone, which apparently was to be made from an 8 m high light metal frame and covered in gold sheets, could not be lowered by a helicopter “…because it will hurt the pyramid. Therefore if we find out that that putting this capstone will hurt the pyramid, then, we will not do it.” But some critics rightly pointed out a lightweight capstone on the 6 million ton stone pyramid would be like placing a flea on an elephant’s back. Finally the Egyptian minister of culture caved in and, at the eleventh hour, admitted that due to public outrage over the ‘Masonic’ implications and to avoid any disturbance the golden capstone ceremony would be scrapped. Ironically on the night of 31st December a thick fog settled over the Great Pyramid which would have made it impossible for a helicopter to lower the capstone on its summit. Jean-Michele Jarre did, however, manage to project some images on the smaller of the three Giza Pyramids including ‘eyes’ until it, too, was engulfed by the fog and the thick smoke caused by huge firework display. It now remains to be seen whether the Egyptian authorities will, as promised, open the “door” in the Great Pyramid and reveal what is behind it in the course of the year 2000. And will they also allow further explorations at the Sphinx to search for the Hall of Records? The eyes of the world are watching.

Marie McKeown

Fri, 05 Jul 2013 01:03 CDT
 

The red-hair gene is most common in Irish blood.

The blood in Irish veins is Celtic, right? Well, not exactly. Although the history many Irish people were taught at school is the history of the Irish as a Celtic race, the truth is much more complicated, and much more interesting than that …

Research done into the DNA of Irish males has shown that the old Anthropological attempts to define ‘Irish’ have been misguided. As late as the 1950s researchers were busy collecting data among Irish people such as hair colour and height, in order to categorise them as a ‘race’ and define them as different to the British. In fact British and Irish people are closely related in their ancestry.

Research into Irish DNA and ancestry has revealed close links with Scotland stretching back to before the Ulster Planation of the early 1600s. But the closest relatives to the Irish in DNA terms are actually from somewhere else entirely!

Medieval map of Ireland

Medieval map of Ireland, showing Irish tribes. Irish origin myths confirmed by modern scientific evidence

Irish Blood: origins of DNA

The earliest settlers came to Ireland around 10,000 years ago, in Stone Age times. There are still remnants of their presence scatter across the island. Mountsandel in Coleraine in the North of Ireland is the oldest known site of settlement in Ireland – remains of woven huts, stone tools and food such as berries and hazelnuts were discovered at the site in 1972.

But where did the early Irish come from? For a long time the myth of Irish history has been that the Irish are Celts. Many people still refer to Irish, Scottish and Welsh as Celtic culture – and the assumtion has been that they were Celts who migrated from central Europe around 500BCE. Keltoi was the name given by the Ancient Greeks to a ‘barbaric’ (in their eyes) people who lived to the north of them in central Europe. While early Irish art shows some similarities of style to central European art of the Keltoi, historians have also recognised many significant differences between the two cultures.

The latest research into Irish DNA has confirmed that the early inhabitants of Ireland were not directly descended from the Keltoi of central Europe. In fact the closest genetic relatives of the Irish in Europe are to be found in the north of Spain in the region known as the Basque Country. These same ancestors are shared to an extent with the people of Britain – especially the Scottish.

DNA testing through the male Y chromosome has shown that Irish males have the highest incidence of the haplogroup 1 gene in Europe. While other parts of Europe have integrated contiuous waves of new settlers from Asia, Ireland’s remote geographical position has meant that the Irish gene-pool has been less susceptible to change. The same genes have been passed down from parents to children for thousands of years.

This is mirrored in genetic studies which have compared DNA analysis with Irish surnames. Many surnames in Irish are Gaelic surnames, suggesting that the holder of the surname is a descendant of people who lived in Ireland long before the English conquests of the Middle Ages. Men with Gaelic surnames, showed the highest incidences of Haplogroup 1 (or Rb1) gene. This means that those Irish whose ancestors pre-date English conquest of the island are direct descendants of early stone age settlers who migrated from Spain.

Irish and British DNA

The Kingdom of Dalriada c 500 AD is marked in green. Pictish areas marked yellow. Irish and British DNA : a comparison

Irish origin myths confirmed by modern scientific evidence

One of the oldest texts composed in Ireland is the Leabhar Gabhla, the Book of Invasions. It tells a semi-mythical history of the waves of people who settled in Ireland in earliest time. It says the first settlers to arrive in Ireland were a small dark race called the Fir Bolg, followed by a magical super-race called the Tuatha de Danaan (the people of the goddess Dana).

Most interestingly, the book says that the group which then came to Ireland and fully established itself as rulers of the island were the Milesians – the sons of Mil, the soldier from Spain. Modern DNA research has actually confirmed that the Irish are close genetic relatives of the people of northern Spain.

While it might seem strange that Ireland was populated from Spain rather than Britain or France, it is worth remembering that in ancient times the sea was one of the fastest and easiest ways to travel. When the land was covered in thick forest, coastal settlements were common and people travelled around the seaboard of Europe quite freely.

I live in Northern Ireland and in this small country the differences between the Irish and the British can still seem very important. Blood has been spilt over the question of national identity.

However, the lastest research into both British and Irish DNA suggests that people on the two islands have much genetically in common. Males in both islands have a strong predominance of Haplogroup 1 gene, meaning that most of us in the British Isles are descended from the same Spanish stone age settlers.

The main difference is the degree to which later migrations of people to the islands affected the population’s DNA. Parts of Ireland (most notably the western seaboard) have been almost untouched by outside genetic influence since hunter-gatherer times. Men there with traditional Irish surnames have the highest incidence of the Haplogroup 1 gene – over 99%.

At the same time London, for example, has been a mutli-ethnic city for hundreds of years. Furthermore, England has seen more arrivals of new people from Europe – Anglo-Saxons and Normans – than Ireland. Therefore while the earliest English ancestors were very similar in DNA and culture to the tribes of Ireland, later arrivals to England have created more diversity between the two groups.

Irish and Scottish people share very similar DNA. The obvious similarities of culture, pale skin, tendancy to red hair have historically been prescribed to the two people’s sharing a common celtic ancestry. Actually it now seems much more likely that the similarity results from the movement of people from the north of Ireland into Scotland in the centuries 400 – 800 AD. At this time the kingdom of Dalriada, based near Ballymoney in County Antrim extended far into Scotland. The Irish invaders brought Gaelic language and culture, and they also brought their genes.

Irish Characteristics and DNA

The MC1R gene has been identified by researchers as the gene responsible for red hair as well as the accompanying fair skin and tendency towards freckles. According to recent research, genes for red hair first appeared in human beings about 40,000 to 50,000 years ago.

These genes were then brought to the British Isles by the original settlers, men and women who would have been relatively tall, with little body fat, athletic, fair-skinned and who would have had red hair. So red-heads may well be descended from the earliest ancestors of the Irish and British.

A spoof (and very funny) exploration into the characteristics of all Irish-blooded males can be read at this link: www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/weekend. Identified genes include IMG or the Irish Mother Gene and the GK (MF) S Gene Kelly-Michael-Flately-Syndrome which explains the inability of the Irish man to move his hips while dancing!

Marie McKeown lives in Ireland where she works on community projects, teaching arts workshops and conflict resolution skills. She also teach workshops on self-care and personal development. She has many interests including health, creative writing, travel, history, and my native Ireland. She graduated with a degree in Spanish and Medieval History and has lived in Spain and East Asia and Latin America.

Robert Bauval

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One of the mysteries of Giza is the missing pyramidion or capstone of the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Since modern recorded history, the Great Pyramid has been topless, with several meters of its apex missing. Egyptologists have assumed that the pyramid was originally capped by a small pyramid called a pyramidion. If that is true, then what happened to it, and what could it have looked like?

It is possible, indeed highly probable, that the great Egyptian architect and royal vizier, Imhotep, was still alive when Khufu planned his pyramid. Imhotep was the High Priest of Heliopolis, where the sacred Benben Stone was kept, and on its shape and symbolism was modeled the gilded capstones of pyramid called ‘Benben-t’. Could Imhotep have advised Khufu to conceal the Benben in his pyramid? But where?

This article below is culled from a discussion in Appendix 1 of my latest book, co-written with Thomas Brophy, Ph.D., Imhotep The African: Architect of the Cosmos (Disinformation Books).   

In October 1900 the guards of the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation (EAO) in the area of Dashur, a site on the western desert that is some 20 kilometers south of modern Cairo, were attacked by a group of armed brigands. A few days later, Gaston Maspero, the head of the EAO went to inspect the site. It was then that he was taken to see an amazing and rather unique artifacts that had been found embedded in the sand near a pyramid of the 12th Dynasty belonging to the pharaoh Amenemhet III. There, sticking partially out of the sand, was a magnificent pyramidion made of black granite. Maspero could hardly believe his eyes at the amazing preservation of this 4000 years old artifacts which, in his excitement, he described as “polished like a mirror”.  The pyramid, which measured 1.85 meters at the base and had a height of 1.40 meters, was decorated with wonderful inscriptions. On one face was a winged solar-disk flanked by two ureus (sacred cobras), and under the solar-disk were two large eyes. Under the eyes were three lutes with a large sun disk underneath. On each side of the sun-disk were the royal cartouches bearing the names of Amennemhet III, and  at the base of the triangular face were two lines of hieroglyphs. In an article published in the Annales Du Services Des Antiquités in 1902, Maspero gave this translation:

“May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon when he crosses the sky; may he cause the king to rise as a god, lord of eternity and indestructible… Horakhti has said I have given to the king of Upper and Lower Egypt the beautiful horizon who takes the inheritance of the two lands…so that you may unit with the horizon…the horizon has said that you rest upon it, which pleases me.”

In view of the mention of Horakhti (Horus of the Horizon) who was regarded as the symbol of the rising sun in the east, Maspero concluded that this face with the winged sun-disk was the East face of the pyramidion. Maspero did not give a full translation of the other threes faces which also bore two lines of inscriptions each, but nonetheless adds that “the invocation is similarly addressed on the South face to Anubis; on the West face to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris; on the North face to Sah-Orion.”

The same view was later expressed by the American Egyptologist James Henry Breasted in 1912. Breasted wrote:

“On the side which undoubtedly faced the east appears a winged sun-disk, surmounted by a pair of eyes, beneath which are the words ‘Beauty of the Sun’, the eyes of course indicate the idea of beholding which is to be understood with the words, ‘beauty of the sun’. Below is an inscription of two lines beginning: ‘The face of king Amenemhet III is opened, that he may behold the Lord of the Horizon when he sails across the sky’…”

In 1964 the American Egyptologist Alexander Piankoff, renowed for his translation of the Pyramid Texts, gave the translation of part of the East face which mentioned the constellation of Orion:

The sou) of Amenemhet is higher than the heights of  Orion, and it unites itself with the Duat…”

Piankoff interpreted the above by writing that “here, as in the Pyramid Texts, Orion is the visible manifestation of Osiris who, like this constellation, descends to the Netherworld (Duat) and then appears again in the sky.”

In 1946 the British Egyptologist Sir I.E.S. Edwards, an authority on the pyramids of Egypt, gave his own translation of the East face:  

“May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon [i.e., Harakhte] when he crosses the sky; may he cause the king to shine as a god, lord of eternity and indestructible, (Harakhte replies that he has) given the beautiful horizon to the king”

Today Egyptologists agree that the pyramids of ancient Egypt represented the dead kings. Indeed, the pyramidwas regarded as an actually personification of the dead king.  Indeed the name given to the pyramids show clearly that these monuments were considered to be the afterlife form of the king himself. According to A. Piankoff, for example,

“The embalmed body of the king lay in or under the pyramid, which together with its entire compound, was considered his body.”

Yet Egyptologists also agree that in the Pyramid Texts, the afterlife form of the king is said to be a ‘star’ in the sky.

This, then, may explain why in the case of at least three pyramids, the monuments were given stellar names while also personifying the dead king, such as “Djedefre is a Star in the Sky”, “Nebka is a Star” and the pyramid of Djoser being called “Horus is the Star at the head of the Sky”.  All this leads us to conclude that the pyramidion on top of the king’s pyramid was regarded as the stellar-transfigured king or his star-soul. It is only when we view it as such that the inscriptions on the East side of the pyramidion of Amenemhet III makes any sense: “May the face of the king be opened so that he may see the Lord of the Horizon…”

But two questions now must be also considered. For if indeed the pyramidion represented the form of the king as a star, then what could possibly have given the ancient Egyptians the idea that a star had the physical shape of a ‘pyramid” and, furthermore, that it was composed of very hard “black stone” such as black granite?

Most Egyptologists agree that the shape of pyramids was inspired by the Benben Stone that was venerated in the ‘Mansion Of The Phoenix’ at the city of Heliopolis. Many scholars claim that the Benben was symbolic of the sun. In 1912 the eminent American Egyptologist James H. Breasted noted the similarity of the word ‘Benben’ with the word ‘Benbenet’ –the pyramid-shaped apex of an obelisk– and concluded that “an obelisk is simply a pyramid upon a lofty base which has become a shaft… the obelisk, as is commonly known, is a symbol sacred to the Sun-god…[it followed that] the king was buried under the very symbol of the Sun-god which stood in the holy of holies in the Sun-temple at Heliopolis” This conclusion by an authority of the caliber of Breasted was quickly embraced by other authorities such as Sir I.E.S. Edwards who also proposed that the occasional sight of an immaterial triangle formed by the sun’s rays striking downwards through low clouds at sunset could have been the inspiration for the Benben’s shape “and its architectural derivative, the true Pyramid”.  Edwards quoted several passages from the Pyramid Texts that seem to support this idea:  

“I have laid down for myself this sunshine of yours as a stairway under my feet…”

“May the sky make the sunlight strong for you, may you rise up to the sky…”

According to Edwards “the temptation to regard the true Pyramid as a material representation of the sun’s rays and consequently as a means whereby the dead king could ascend to heaven seems irresistible.” Yet it is also true that the Pyramid Texts give many other means for the dead pharaoh to ascend to the sky: on a ladder ( “The king climbs to the sky on a ladder”); on the wind (“the king is bound for the sky on the wind” (pyr. 309); on a storm-cloud/thunderbolt (“The king is a flame before the wind…there is brought to him a way of ascent to the sky”); on a hailstorm (“the hailstorms of the sky have taken me”); on a reed-floa: (“the reed-floats of the sky are set in place for me…I am ferried over to the eastern sky”); by climbing a rope (“set the rope aright, cross the Milky Way…”); on the thighs of Isis: (I ascend [to the sky] upon the thighs of Isis” ).  So the Pyramid Texts are full of such metaphors, and thus the idea of the dead king climbing on the sun’s rays is only another to describe poetically the celestial ascent, and cannot be taken as evidence for the shape of the Benben or the pyramid. There is, however, in the Pyramid Texts a passage which directly equate the actual pyramid to the king and Osiris: “This king is Osiris, this pyramid of the king is Osiris, this construction of his is Osiris, betake yourself to it, do not be far from it in its name of pyramid…”.

In the rebirth rituals of the Pyramid Texts the dead king’s name is compounded with the name of Osiris, showing that after his death the king became “an Osiris”. Now Osiris in the Pyramid Texts was a star-god whose soul was identified to the constellation of Orion:

“Behold Osiris has come as Orion”

“O king, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion”

Could, therefore, the Benben Stone, and its derivatives the pyramid and the pyramidion, be regarded as ‘star’ symbols?  It is true that the ‘Mansion Of The Phoenix’ in which was kept the Benben Stone was in the City of Iunu, later called Heliopolis (City of the Sun) by the Greeks, an association of the Benben with the sun does not necessarily follow. Why, one must wonder, was a pyramid or conical shaped stone would be regarded as a manifestation of the sun when in all ancient Egyptian art the sun is represented as a disk or circle? Egyptologists have argued that the reason for this was because the Benben Stone may also have been a symbol of the so-called “Primeval Mound” in the Pyramid Texts on which it is said that the first sunrise took place, implying that the shape of the pyramid was inspired by the idea of a sacred mound. Edwards rejects this idea by pointing out that the Primeval Mound was linked to the much older Mastaba tomb structure of the first three Dynasties, which was not pyramid-shaped but rather in the form of a rectangular slab. Clearly, another more plausible explanation for the pyramidal or conical shape of the Benben Stone must be sought.

It is known that a sacred pillar was worshipped at Heliopolis before the Benben. The phallic symbolism of a pillar needs no emphasis; and its association to the “phallus” of Atum is implied in the Pyramid Texts

“Atum is he who once came into being, who masturbated in Heliopolis. He took his phallus in his grasp that he might create orgasm by means of it…”

“O Atum, the rising sun (-khoprer, the sacred beetle), you became high on the heights, , you rose as the Benben Stone in the Mansion Of The Phoenix in On…”

The Egyptologist Henry Frankfort made the plausible suggestion that the Benben was placed atop the sacred pillar, giving rise to the idea of the obelisk with a Benbenet/pyramidion at its top, and that the pyramidion may thus represent the “semen” or “seed” being ejaculated from a cosmic phallus associated to Atum. There are several well-known depiction of the Earth-God Geb (the son of Atum) laying down with an exaggeratedly long phallus pointing to the Sky-Goddess Nut, the “mother of Osiris”:

“…make the womb of Nut pregnant with the seed of the spirit which is in her”

“Pressure is in your womb, O Nut, through the seed of the god which is in you; it is I [the Osiris-king] who am the seed of the god which is in you…”

“…the king is an imperishable star, son of the sky-goddess Nut…”

“The king was fashioned by his father Atum…”

“O Atum, this king comes to you, an imperishable spirit (star)…your son comes to you, this king comes to you”

In my opinion, then, the idea of a pillar surging skywards and on top of which was the Benben Stone, is highly symbolic of a giant phallus offering its “star-seed” to the sky-goddess in order to gestate it in her womb and cause the departed king to be “reborn”. Bearing this in mind, it comes as no surprise to discover that the word “Benben” is often given the meaning to “copulate” or “seed a womb” confirmed by the hieroglyphic sign of an erect phallus shown ejaculating semen. Indeed, there are several words in the ancient Egyptian language that use the root word ‘Ben’ to describe sexual acts. Also in the famous Turin Papyrus which depicts sexual scenes, one image shows a beautiful naked woman inserting the tip of a pyramidion into her vagina, making clear that such objects were regarded phallis or capable of seeding a womb. The stellar aspect of these “seeding” rituals are depicted in the following passages of the Pyramid texts, where the departed king is somehow put into the womb of the sky-goddess (the ‘sarcophagus’) and is gestated there to eventually be reborn as star:

“The king is your seed”

“…the king comes to you, O mother of the king, he has come to Nut, that you may bring the sky to the king and hang the stars for him…”

“the sky-Goddess Nut conceives you with Orion…”

“Recitation by Nut, the greatly beneficent: the king is my eldest son who splits open my womb…”

“…O King, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion…the sky has borne you with Orion…” (pyr.882-3).

“The King is a star brilliant…the King appears as a star…”

“You [Nut] have set this King as an imperishable Star who is in you…”

“The King is a star”

“I [the king] am a soul …a star of gold…”

“I [the king] am a star which illumines the sky…”

As we have said earlier in this article, the names of several monumental pyramids were given stellar names such as ‘Djedefre is a sehed  star’; ‘Nebka is a star’. Also the ‘ba’ i.e. soul, of the dead king is clearly to be regarded as a s ‘star’ in the Pyramid Texts, which indirectly also gives a stellar name to many other pyramids such as ‘The soul (ba) of Sahure gleams’ and ‘Neferirkare has become a soul (ba)’. The compounding of the pharaoh’s name with his pyramid implies, if not proves, that the monument (or perhaps mostly the pyramidion at the top) is to be regarded as the transfigured form of the king into a star-soul.

Still, why did the ancient Egyptians imagine that the star were shaped like a pyramid or a cone?

In antiquity the sight of “shooting stars” or  “falling stars” is, of course, a meteorite. Meteorites are debris from outer space, mostly from broken up asteroids, which enter the gravitational pull of the Earth and fall down to the ground –as opposed to meteors which completely burn up during atmospheric transit. Meteorites are either iron-meteorites (about 90% iron and 10-12% nickel) or stone meteorites. The largest that survive impact are the iron-meteorites for obvious reasons. Most meteorites are very small, but occasionally a large meteorite enters our atmosphere. If it is very large  it will retain most of its cosmic velocity, thus compressing the air in front of it as it approaches the ground, causing it to explode with dramatic effect. But if the meteorite is of medium size, somewhere between 10 and 60 tons, its cosmic velocity is slowed down by the earth’s atmosphere, causing the meteorite to eventually free fall and hit the ground almost intact. Some of these medium size meteorites retain their orientation as they speed through the earth’s atmosphere, which causes only the front part to melt and flow toward the rear. The result is a iron object having the shape of a rough pyramid or cone.

Bearing this in mind, I also discovered that the ancient Egyptians believed that iron actually came from heaven, which is clearly an allusion to the meteoritic origin of iron before the Iron Age. In other ancient cultures there were many sacred stones such as the Benben which were believed to have ‘fallen from heaven’. The Ephesians (see Acts xix-35 of the Bible) worshipped such a stone in the temple of Diana “that symbol of her which fell from heaven”. In Delphi a stone shaped like a cone was believed to have come from the sky. A conical iron-meteorite was also worshiped by the Phrygian in the 7th century BC. There was also the famous conical “black stone” called Elagalabus that was worshipped in Emessa. A modern example of such “stone from heaven” is the  black stone of the the Ka’aba in Mecca in Saudi Arabia which is a meteorite that was recovered in antiquity. The British Egyptologist Gerald Wainwright has shown how iron in early Egypt was obtained from iron-meteorites. The ancient Egyptian word for iron was ‘bja’ which was called “material of which heaven was made”. Significantly, in the Pyramid Texts we are told that,

“The king’s bones are iron and the king’s members are the imperishable stars…”

“I [the king] am pure, I take to myself my iron bones…my imperishable limbs are in the womb of Nut”

“…my bones are iron and my limbs are the imperishable stars”.

It is not very hard to see that chunks of meteoritic iron, which generally have a luster black appearance, were classified by the ancient Egyptians along with other hard black or dark stones such as diorite, basalt and granite. To a people unfamiliar with iron and its chemical properties, the resemblance of basalt to a rough iron meteorite can be uncanny. Not surprising then, black basalt was called ‘black iron’ (bja kam), suggesting that basalt, and possibly black granite, were associated to meteoritic iron, and consequently to the ‘bones’ of star-gods. Most pyramidions that were once placed on the top of pyramids were made of dark granite, such as the fine example of Amenemhet III. Also the hieroglyphic sign for ‘pyramid’ was a pyramid often with a yellow pyramidion, suggesting that the latter may have been covered with gold leaf. An inscription on the pyramid of queen Udjebten (6th Dynasty) speaks of the golden capstone on her pyramid. In the Pyramid Texts we read,

“O King, raise yourself upon your iron bones and golden members, for this body of yours belongs to a god… may your flesh be born to life and may your life be more than the life of the stars in their season of life…”

“I [the king] row Ra when traversing the sky, even I a star of gold…”

“…be a soul like a living star”.

Could the idea of the pyramidal shape of a “living star” made from golden flesh and black iron bones and shining high up in the sky, have been the reason for the pyramidion made of black granite covered in gold leaf and raised high up the pyramid? Was this how the lost pyramidion of Khufu looked like? And what could have happened to it? Could it have been removed by the priests of Heliopolis, under the orders of Imhotep, from its original sanctuary and hidden somewhere? Where?

In a ‘secret chamber’ inside the Great Pyramid?

Only time will tell…

The power of the serpent of Egypt was broken on the cross – Justin MartyrJesus Crucified Diptych of Jeanne of France Rogier van der Weyden

Let it be said that long before Romans had given us the images and idols of the Lord and Savior of Jesus crucified upon the cross, the serpent or snake was the chosen image by the ancient wise people of the not so distant past as their savior. In fact, the ancient Romans had used to carry forth the serpent in war, and one of their standards was the serpent on a pole. St. Augustine tells us that the image of Christ, and his Cross was the new ensign of Christian Warfare that the Romans had carried before them; being the Ensign or Profession of their Warfare. Hence as Jesus had said, “I come not to bring peace, but to bring a sword” (Matthew 10:34)

Serpent worship 2The ancient serpent-god of the Gnostics from the East was Serapis. The various spellings of the name Serapis are Sor-apis (Σέραπις, Attic/Ionian Greek), Sarapis (Σάραπις, Dorian Greek), Serapin (Greek Ὄφις), or in Hebrew Seraph. All these names mean ‘serpent.’ The name ‘seraphim’ is the plural form of serpent and is also said to mean, “the burning ones.” Serapis is the Hellenized version of the Egyptian Osiris-Apis.

“Be ye wise as serpents”

Serapis is the serpent on the cross that was also the precursor to the Christian Christ, who would take the serpents place upon the cross in this Sixth Age under the religion of Christianity. Before the Christian era, the most ancient worship of the serpent was practiced in many areas of the world. The serpent on the cross was still worshiped up to the 7th century in England under the Druids. Tacitus, the Roman senator and historian had said that Serapis was worshipped as a type of universal deity that represented Jupiter, Osiris, Pluto, and sometimes Jupiter Ammon. The cult of Serapis had originated from the Greco-Egyptian priesthood under the Ptolemies, and the testimony of Pausanias says the temples of Serapis were the most famous at Alexandria, and the most ancient at Memphis.

Moses and Brazen serpentWith the symbol of Jesus, St Mark informs us, “With the form of a serpent, He kills the serpent, for the serpent made out of the rod swallowed up the other serpents.” This symbolic event is further explained in St Augustine’s sixth sermon where he said, ” the serpent signifies death, and that Moses’ rod was changed into because our Lord took upon himself death for us.”

Prior to the 15th century A.D. , most people were unlearned and they could they read or write. The main educated class was usually those fortunate souls who were born into current ruling royal stock. This is why symbols and picture were often the preferred method in which the priesthood and government would educate the people about their religion, gods and history. The Father of English History and Doctor of the Church, Saint Bede who had lived during the 7th century and at the time of this transition from the Old Testament serpent on the cross to New Testament Jesus on the cross calls these images, “executed with wonderful art and wisdom.

Some bishops of the church had disagreed with this symbolic method of idolatry type education such as when the Bishop of Marseilles, Serenus had broken these idols. In the book, “An English-Saxon Homily on the Birth-day of St. Gregory,” By Aelfric (Abbot of Eynsham), he relates the story of Gregory the Great who had declared in his Epistle to Serenus, speaking of those Images which that Bishop had broken;

who know not Letters , may at least be able to read, by looking upon the Walls, what they are not capable of reading in Books. Wherefore, your Brotherhood you’d both preserve them, and hinder the People from adoring them. That sa f1 those who cannot read, may have, from whence to gather some Knowledge of History: And the people be, by no means, permitted to Sin, by the Adoration of a Picture.

Bede had further explained, “A Cross of Silver, and the Image of our Saviour in a Picture. ‘In this manner Augustine, and his Followers, are described, by Bede, to have come into the Presence of King Æthelbert. They bore a Cross for their Banner, Pro Vexillo: hon pro Adoratione, not for Adoration.” A Latin phrase meaning, “As standards: no honors for Adoration.” Hence, there was no homage or worship given to it, but only as St Augustine had said, “his Cross was the new ensign of Christian Warfare.”

 But that you may under« sand the Use of the Images of Stints, and of our “Saviour, which our Saxon Ancestors, and who, writing of the Images of things in Solomon’s Temple, expressed himself thus, If it was lawful to lift up the brazen Serpent upon a Pole, which the Children of Israel beholding, were saved alive: why may we  net, by a picture, bring into the Memory of the A Faithfuls that sifting up of our Saviour upon the Cross, by which he overcame Death: or those “his other Miracles, and Cures, by which he wonderfully triumphed over the fame Author of Death Since the fight of these things make oftentimes a deep Impression on the Minds of the Beholders, and to those who are ignorant of Letters, open asit were a kind of lively reading, of the History of our Lord. For picture, in the Greek, is called “(secret for you to find out)”, that is, a writing that expresses the Life.

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF SERPENT WORSHIP AND THE SERPENT ON THE CROSS ?Cross and serpent

For thousands of years, the serpent or dragon was worshiped by many cultures all around the world. To these ancient people, the serpent had signified wisdom, intelligence, life and rebirth. In a sense, the symbol of the serpent represented Gnosis in the highest sense which would equate to human godlike status and the equivalent of a Christ or the messiah. However, to modern Christians, the serpent is the devil incarnate and the followers of this ancient wisdom are called Demons. Hence, the 2, 000 year old war between the new savior, Jesus who was the Roman-Jewish messiah of the New Testament (New Law) and the serpent savior who is the price of Demons of the Greek Old Testament (Old Law).

As Saint John had magically said, “The great dragon was hurled down—that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray. He was hurled to the earth, and his angels with him.” – Revelation 12:9

In ancient Greece, the Greatest of all Serpents and the Prince of Good Demons (Angels) was Ophis (Οφιων, Ophiôn, Ophion who had reigned on Mount Olympus with his consort Eurynome. The name Ophis is Greek for serpent. Author and occultist, HP Blavatsky had written in Isis Unveiled that the Greeks called Apollo also by the name of Python, which is rendered the same as Ophis, Opis, Oupis, and Oub. Both Apollo and Ophis were the sons of Zeus who is father of the Gods, father of men, the god of light, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. The followers of Ophis were called the Ophites. Ophis is the Greek equivalent to the ancient Egyptian Apap or Aph-ophis, the Great Serpent who later became Apis, or Epaphus, the Sacred Bull of Egypt. Blavatsky had written that Apollo and Python, Osiris and Typhon, Christos and the Serpent, are all convertible terms and the followers of this cult were called Masters of Wisdom, and all Initiates into the Sacred Mysteries, are called Nagas, or Serpents of Wisdom. However, I disagree that Typhon would be considered the same as the Apollo, Python, or Osiris.

From the Nile in Egypt, the African plains of Ethiopia, deserts of Arabia,  highlands of Persia, to the plains of Syria, and to the Phoenicians or Greeks of the Mediterranean Sea and their Holy Island of Crete, to the their biblical tribes of Canaan, the land of Scotia, Ireland, Brittain and to the island of the Culdee Druids in Iona, the ancient priesthoods of these people had always venerated the serpent. One of the symbols of both Hercules and the Celtic Druid Hu was a serpent.

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SERPENT ON A POLE?

It wasn’t the Jews who had actually had symbolically crucified Jesus to the cross at Golgatha (Place of the skull), but Roman soldiers. St. John tells us clearly that  it was the Jews who had cried out “Crucify Him,” and the soldiers who were Roman that executed the orders of the sentence of death. The Jews would be the instigators and the Romans the executors which makes them both accomplices.

What had occurred at this time was simple as I had written above. “With the form of a serpent He kills the serpent, for the serpent made out of the rod swallowed up the other serpents.”

Over time, the Romans who were often at war with these various serpent tribes had realized that in order to subjugate the world, they had to perform magic and rites that would counter attack the religious rites of the people they had wished to conquer. The main tactical magical method they would employ against these people of the serpent would be to replace or rename their Gods which they would take ownership of under new names and also reverse symbology, and iconography in which Rome’s chosen Caesar’s, martyred Saints and gods would usurp all other old serpent Gods and demons of the Old Testament.

St Bede2An example of these methods are related to us by the Father of English History and Doctor of the Church, Saint Bede who had lived during the 7th century in his book, “The Lives of the Abbots of Wearmouth.” Bede tells the story of how Saint Benedict in the same time period had made his ’6th’ and final trip to Rome in order to bring back relics and decorations to Northumbria in Monkwearmouth-Jarrow for the newly built monasteries of St. Peter and St. Paul which was the main center of Anglo-Saxon learning. The purpose of these relics and art was to show to people who had visited the monasteries concordance between the Old and New Testaments and how this change from the serpent of Moses to Jesus on the cross as a symbol of Christianity was passed down to us.

Soon after the appointment of Easterwine to the abbacy of St. Peter’s, and of Ceolfrid to the direction of St. Paul’s, Benedict had undertaken, and with his wonted prosperity accomplished his sixth and last journey to the city of Rome. Thence he now returned, laden as formerly with a store of ecclesiastical treasures. These, as usual, consisted of a bountiful provision of sacred writings, and an elegant collection of holy pictures. For he brought home on this occasion, the life of our Lord Jesus Christ, described in one series of paintings, with which he beautified the whole interior of the church annexed to the greater monastery, in honour of the virgin mother of God.

For the decoration also of St. Paul’s church and abbey he had procured another set, in which, upon an admirable system, was displayed the concordance between the Old and New Testaments. Of this, to give an instance: Isaac carrying the wood whereon he was ordered to be immolated, and Jesus bearing the cross, on which he died a sacrifice for our sins, are drawn in one piece, and exhibited as corresponding subjects; in a second are paired together, the Son of Man hanging on the cross, and the brazen serpent raised by Moses in the desert.

According to Greek Mythology, eventually the Good Serpent Ophis would be dethroned by his grandfather, the God of chaos Theta deathand darkness, Kronos (Saturn or Satan) and the goddess of fertility and war, Rhea (Saturn’s Moon). Hence, the true serpent and dragon of wisdom, Ophis was cast out and in his place, chaos and darkness would rule under Cronus (Saturn or Satan) and the goddess of fertility and war, Rhea (Saturn’s Moon). This is the reason why Jesus on the cross is considered by the Fathers of the church as the standard of Christian warfare and the lower case Greek t, the symbol of death.

Based on the testimony of Bede, we can safely date the change of the symbolism from the Old Testament serpent on the cross to the son of man, Jesus on the cross for the Anglo-Saxons had occurred around the time of Bede in the 7th century where it had first started in Rome and then later moved to the Anglo-Saxon territories such as Great Britain, England, France, Germany and Spain.

http://gnosticwarrior.com/serpent-on-the-cross.html