Archive for the ‘Religion’ Category

The power of the serpent of Egypt was broken on the cross – Justin MartyrJesus Crucified Diptych of Jeanne of France Rogier van der Weyden

Let it be said that long before Romans had given us the images and idols of the Lord and Savior of Jesus crucified upon the cross, the serpent or snake was the chosen image by the ancient wise people of the not so distant past as their savior. In fact, the ancient Romans had used to carry forth the serpent in war, and one of their standards was the serpent on a pole. St. Augustine tells us that the image of Christ, and his Cross was the new ensign of Christian Warfare that the Romans had carried before them; being the Ensign or Profession of their Warfare. Hence as Jesus had said, “I come not to bring peace, but to bring a sword” (Matthew 10:34)

Serpent worship 2The ancient serpent-god of the Gnostics from the East was Serapis. The various spellings of the name Serapis are Sor-apis (Σέραπις, Attic/Ionian Greek), Sarapis (Σάραπις, Dorian Greek), Serapin (Greek Ὄφις), or in Hebrew Seraph. All these names mean ‘serpent.’ The name ‘seraphim’ is the plural form of serpent and is also said to mean, “the burning ones.” Serapis is the Hellenized version of the Egyptian Osiris-Apis.

“Be ye wise as serpents”

Serapis is the serpent on the cross that was also the precursor to the Christian Christ, who would take the serpents place upon the cross in this Sixth Age under the religion of Christianity. Before the Christian era, the most ancient worship of the serpent was practiced in many areas of the world. The serpent on the cross was still worshiped up to the 7th century in England under the Druids. Tacitus, the Roman senator and historian had said that Serapis was worshipped as a type of universal deity that represented Jupiter, Osiris, Pluto, and sometimes Jupiter Ammon. The cult of Serapis had originated from the Greco-Egyptian priesthood under the Ptolemies, and the testimony of Pausanias says the temples of Serapis were the most famous at Alexandria, and the most ancient at Memphis.

Moses and Brazen serpentWith the symbol of Jesus, St Mark informs us, “With the form of a serpent, He kills the serpent, for the serpent made out of the rod swallowed up the other serpents.” This symbolic event is further explained in St Augustine’s sixth sermon where he said, ” the serpent signifies death, and that Moses’ rod was changed into because our Lord took upon himself death for us.”

Prior to the 15th century A.D. , most people were unlearned and they could they read or write. The main educated class was usually those fortunate souls who were born into current ruling royal stock. This is why symbols and picture were often the preferred method in which the priesthood and government would educate the people about their religion, gods and history. The Father of English History and Doctor of the Church, Saint Bede who had lived during the 7th century and at the time of this transition from the Old Testament serpent on the cross to New Testament Jesus on the cross calls these images, “executed with wonderful art and wisdom.

Some bishops of the church had disagreed with this symbolic method of idolatry type education such as when the Bishop of Marseilles, Serenus had broken these idols. In the book, “An English-Saxon Homily on the Birth-day of St. Gregory,” By Aelfric (Abbot of Eynsham), he relates the story of Gregory the Great who had declared in his Epistle to Serenus, speaking of those Images which that Bishop had broken;

who know not Letters , may at least be able to read, by looking upon the Walls, what they are not capable of reading in Books. Wherefore, your Brotherhood you’d both preserve them, and hinder the People from adoring them. That sa f1 those who cannot read, may have, from whence to gather some Knowledge of History: And the people be, by no means, permitted to Sin, by the Adoration of a Picture.

Bede had further explained, “A Cross of Silver, and the Image of our Saviour in a Picture. ‘In this manner Augustine, and his Followers, are described, by Bede, to have come into the Presence of King Æthelbert. They bore a Cross for their Banner, Pro Vexillo: hon pro Adoratione, not for Adoration.” A Latin phrase meaning, “As standards: no honors for Adoration.” Hence, there was no homage or worship given to it, but only as St Augustine had said, “his Cross was the new ensign of Christian Warfare.”

 But that you may under« sand the Use of the Images of Stints, and of our “Saviour, which our Saxon Ancestors, and who, writing of the Images of things in Solomon’s Temple, expressed himself thus, If it was lawful to lift up the brazen Serpent upon a Pole, which the Children of Israel beholding, were saved alive: why may we  net, by a picture, bring into the Memory of the A Faithfuls that sifting up of our Saviour upon the Cross, by which he overcame Death: or those “his other Miracles, and Cures, by which he wonderfully triumphed over the fame Author of Death Since the fight of these things make oftentimes a deep Impression on the Minds of the Beholders, and to those who are ignorant of Letters, open asit were a kind of lively reading, of the History of our Lord. For picture, in the Greek, is called “(secret for you to find out)”, that is, a writing that expresses the Life.


For thousands of years, the serpent or dragon was worshiped by many cultures all around the world. To these ancient people, the serpent had signified wisdom, intelligence, life and rebirth. In a sense, the symbol of the serpent represented Gnosis in the highest sense which would equate to human godlike status and the equivalent of a Christ or the messiah. However, to modern Christians, the serpent is the devil incarnate and the followers of this ancient wisdom are called Demons. Hence, the 2, 000 year old war between the new savior, Jesus who was the Roman-Jewish messiah of the New Testament (New Law) and the serpent savior who is the price of Demons of the Greek Old Testament (Old Law).

As Saint John had magically said, “The great dragon was hurled down—that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray. He was hurled to the earth, and his angels with him.” – Revelation 12:9

In ancient Greece, the Greatest of all Serpents and the Prince of Good Demons (Angels) was Ophis (Οφιων, Ophiôn, Ophion who had reigned on Mount Olympus with his consort Eurynome. The name Ophis is Greek for serpent. Author and occultist, HP Blavatsky had written in Isis Unveiled that the Greeks called Apollo also by the name of Python, which is rendered the same as Ophis, Opis, Oupis, and Oub. Both Apollo and Ophis were the sons of Zeus who is father of the Gods, father of men, the god of light, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. The followers of Ophis were called the Ophites. Ophis is the Greek equivalent to the ancient Egyptian Apap or Aph-ophis, the Great Serpent who later became Apis, or Epaphus, the Sacred Bull of Egypt. Blavatsky had written that Apollo and Python, Osiris and Typhon, Christos and the Serpent, are all convertible terms and the followers of this cult were called Masters of Wisdom, and all Initiates into the Sacred Mysteries, are called Nagas, or Serpents of Wisdom. However, I disagree that Typhon would be considered the same as the Apollo, Python, or Osiris.

From the Nile in Egypt, the African plains of Ethiopia, deserts of Arabia,  highlands of Persia, to the plains of Syria, and to the Phoenicians or Greeks of the Mediterranean Sea and their Holy Island of Crete, to the their biblical tribes of Canaan, the land of Scotia, Ireland, Brittain and to the island of the Culdee Druids in Iona, the ancient priesthoods of these people had always venerated the serpent. One of the symbols of both Hercules and the Celtic Druid Hu was a serpent.


It wasn’t the Jews who had actually had symbolically crucified Jesus to the cross at Golgatha (Place of the skull), but Roman soldiers. St. John tells us clearly that  it was the Jews who had cried out “Crucify Him,” and the soldiers who were Roman that executed the orders of the sentence of death. The Jews would be the instigators and the Romans the executors which makes them both accomplices.

What had occurred at this time was simple as I had written above. “With the form of a serpent He kills the serpent, for the serpent made out of the rod swallowed up the other serpents.”

Over time, the Romans who were often at war with these various serpent tribes had realized that in order to subjugate the world, they had to perform magic and rites that would counter attack the religious rites of the people they had wished to conquer. The main tactical magical method they would employ against these people of the serpent would be to replace or rename their Gods which they would take ownership of under new names and also reverse symbology, and iconography in which Rome’s chosen Caesar’s, martyred Saints and gods would usurp all other old serpent Gods and demons of the Old Testament.

St Bede2An example of these methods are related to us by the Father of English History and Doctor of the Church, Saint Bede who had lived during the 7th century in his book, “The Lives of the Abbots of Wearmouth.” Bede tells the story of how Saint Benedict in the same time period had made his ’6th’ and final trip to Rome in order to bring back relics and decorations to Northumbria in Monkwearmouth-Jarrow for the newly built monasteries of St. Peter and St. Paul which was the main center of Anglo-Saxon learning. The purpose of these relics and art was to show to people who had visited the monasteries concordance between the Old and New Testaments and how this change from the serpent of Moses to Jesus on the cross as a symbol of Christianity was passed down to us.

Soon after the appointment of Easterwine to the abbacy of St. Peter’s, and of Ceolfrid to the direction of St. Paul’s, Benedict had undertaken, and with his wonted prosperity accomplished his sixth and last journey to the city of Rome. Thence he now returned, laden as formerly with a store of ecclesiastical treasures. These, as usual, consisted of a bountiful provision of sacred writings, and an elegant collection of holy pictures. For he brought home on this occasion, the life of our Lord Jesus Christ, described in one series of paintings, with which he beautified the whole interior of the church annexed to the greater monastery, in honour of the virgin mother of God.

For the decoration also of St. Paul’s church and abbey he had procured another set, in which, upon an admirable system, was displayed the concordance between the Old and New Testaments. Of this, to give an instance: Isaac carrying the wood whereon he was ordered to be immolated, and Jesus bearing the cross, on which he died a sacrifice for our sins, are drawn in one piece, and exhibited as corresponding subjects; in a second are paired together, the Son of Man hanging on the cross, and the brazen serpent raised by Moses in the desert.

According to Greek Mythology, eventually the Good Serpent Ophis would be dethroned by his grandfather, the God of chaos Theta deathand darkness, Kronos (Saturn or Satan) and the goddess of fertility and war, Rhea (Saturn’s Moon). Hence, the true serpent and dragon of wisdom, Ophis was cast out and in his place, chaos and darkness would rule under Cronus (Saturn or Satan) and the goddess of fertility and war, Rhea (Saturn’s Moon). This is the reason why Jesus on the cross is considered by the Fathers of the church as the standard of Christian warfare and the lower case Greek t, the symbol of death.

Based on the testimony of Bede, we can safely date the change of the symbolism from the Old Testament serpent on the cross to the son of man, Jesus on the cross for the Anglo-Saxons had occurred around the time of Bede in the 7th century where it had first started in Rome and then later moved to the Anglo-Saxon territories such as Great Britain, England, France, Germany and Spain.

TED: Some ideas TOO fascinating – Hancock, Sheldrake’s censored talks

TED, globally known as a showcase of ideas, hosts “fascinating thinkers and doers” who occupy a stage for 18 minutes or less to share their ideas with a global audience. Started in 1984, TED began as “a conference bringing together people from three worlds: Technology, Entertainment, Design. Since then its scope has become ever broader.” Source

TED is often seen as presenting a non-profit forum of thoughts and concepts that would otherwise be missed by the mainstream and insulated research communities.

The progeny project, TEDx, is “designed to give communities, organizations and individuals the opportunity to stimulate dialogue through TED-like experiences at the local level.” Source

There are critics of such events, with the talks being described as “elitist”, and monstrosities “that turns scientists and thinkers into low-level entertainers”.

Joe Rogan talks to Eddie Huang about his experience at the TED conference. (Language)

Recently TEDx has come under fire for what many see decry as censorship.

From the TED Wikipedia entry:

In March 2013, TED drew considerable controversy and accusations of censorship when it decided to delete the TEDx Whitechapel talks of Rupert Sheldrake and Graham Hancock from its TEDTalks YouTUBE channel. After several days of online protests TED retracted its original statements by crossing them out and publishing rebuttals from both Rupert Sheldrake and Graham Hancock. They also put the videos up in a framed fashion in a non-searchable part of its own web site. TED then also invited discussions on the TED talks in question. To-date the talks have not been put back on the TED Talks YouTUBE Channel. Source

Secret Occult of Saturn Worship

Posted: March 19, 2013 in Ancient Civilizations, Conspiracy, Government, Illuminati, Media, Occult, Religion, Science
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Secret Occult of Saturn Worship


You might not know it, but the entire world has been worshiping Saturn for thousands of years. The cult has never stopped and its rites are still present to this day. Saturn, dubbed the “Lord of the Rings”, is the reason why we exchange rings at weddings or put halos on the heads of godly people. This article exposes the attributes of the god Saturn and the perpetuation of his cult through corporate logos.

Since ancient times, sages gazed at the stars, admiring their heavenly glow and attributing them godly powers, based on their effect on humans. Before the Great Flood, Saturn was regarded by all mankind as the supreme god and ruler of the kings. Occult researchers affirm that Saturn ruled the kingdom of Atlantis and became the divine ancestor of all earthly patriarchs and kings. The cult has been perpetuated through numerous gods during Antiquity:

Occult researchers affirm that Saturn ruled the kingdom of Atlantis and became the divine ancestor of all earthly patriarchs and kings. The cult has been perpetuated through numerous gods during Antiquity. Chronos, or Saturn, Dionysos, Hyperion, Atlas, Hercules, were all connected with ‘a great Saturnian continent;’ they were kings that ruled over countries on the western shores of the Mediterranean, Africa and Spain.

Many Jews and Christians have been deceived by Jewish Kabbalists who would have them believe that the six-pointed star is a Jewish symbol. Nothing could be further from the truth. It is not a Jewish symbol, but an occult symbol. The six-pointed star is a hexagram – a curse mark – no matter what name it may have: the Star of David, Solomon’s Seal, Double Triangle, Shield of David, etc.  When the occult practitioner puts a curse on someone, he uses the hexagram!

It is not our goal to condemn the Jewish people, but to condemn the six-pointed star, a curse mark.

The 6-pointed star is not a Jewish symbol, but an Egyptian symbol which Israel adopted in the wilderness due to their apostasy.

  • Acts 7:37-43 “This is that Moses…to whom our fathers wold not obey, but thrust him from them, and IN THEIR HEARTS TURNED BACK AGAIN INTO EGYPT… And they made a calf in those days, and offered sacrifices unto the idol, and rejoiced in the works of their own hands. Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the HOST OF HEAVEN: as it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye house of Israel, have ye offered to Me slain beasts and sacrifices by the space of FORTY YEARS IN THE WILDERNESS? Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the STAROF YOUR GOD REMPHAN, figures which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond Babylon.”
  • Amos 5:26-27 “But ye have born the tabernacle of your Moloch, and Chiun (Remphan) your images, the STAR OF YOUR GOD, which ye made to yourselves. Therefore, will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith the Lord…”
  • The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia declares that the SIX-POINTED STAR…according to the Rosicrucians…was known to the ancient Egyptians.” (Graham, p. 13)
  • “SIX TRIANGLES…is the Egyptian hieroglyphic for the …Land of the Spirits.” (Churchward, p. 177)
  • “Ancient Egyptian Seal of Solomon” (Churchward, p. 188)
  • “In the Astro-Mythology of the Egyptians, we find belief in the first man-god (Horus I) …and his death and resurrection as Amsu”
  • “This (6-pointed star) was the first sign or hieroglyphic of Amsu”
  • “Amsu – the risen Horus – was the first man-god risen in spiritual form.” (Churchward, p. 3, 65, 38)

The six pointed star is associated with the worship of Saturn.  Therefore, the beast is Saturn (Satan) and his mark is the 6- pointed star.

  • Acts 7:43 – Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the STAR OF YOUR GOD REMPHAN, figures which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond Babylon.
  • Amos 5:26-27 – But ye have born the tabernacle of your Moloch, and Chiun (Remphan) your images, the STAR OF YOUR GOD, which ye made to yourselves. Therefore, will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith the Lord.

Both Chiun and Saturn are identified as Cain

  • “The god of time was Chium in Egypt, or Saturn…and Chium is the same as Cain.” – Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine (897:390)
  •  N.B. Chium is an alternative spelling of Chiun: “…Chium, Chiunkiyyun, khiyun (Hebrew)…” – Theosophical Glossary (898)
  • “Chiun is sometimes called Kaiwan, or spelled Khiun, and means star. The star of Saturn was a god… Sakkuth and Kaiwan or Chiun are objects of idolatrous worship and are Assyrian gods. In Akkadian texts both names mean the planet or star, Saturn.” (Graham, The Six-Pointed Star, pp. 28-29)
  • This is perhaps the oldest form of idolatry practiced by the ancients. According to Wisdom xiii. 2, the observation of the stars in the East very early led the people to regard the planets and the fixed stars as gods. The religion of the ancient Egyptians is known to have consisted preeminently of sun-worship. Moses sternly warned the Israelites against worshiping the sun, moon, stars, and all the host of heaven (Deut. iv. 19, xvii. 3); it may be said that the prohibition of making and worshiping any image of that which is in heaven above (Ex. xx. 4; Deut. 5:8) implies also the stars and the other celestial bodies. The Israelites fell into this kind of idolatry, and as early as the time of Amos they had the images of Siccuth and Chiun, “the stars of their god” (Amos v. 26, R. V.); the latter name is generally supposed to denote the planetSaturn. That the kingdom of Israel fell earlier than that of Judah is stated (II Kings xvii. 16) to have been due, among other causes, to its worshiping the host of heaven. But the kingdom of Judah in its later period seems to have out-done the Northern Kingdom in star-worship.  (The Jewish Encyclopedia, Star-Worship, p., 527)


Stonehenge builders travelled from far, say researchers


Stonehenge was built on a complex energy grid which connected with many surrounding sites around the world such many cities like London, Vatican, Giza etc. We are a species with amnesia, we are only just finding out our past because it’s either been hidden from us or the origins destroyed a long time ago. We use today’s logic to come up with theories that we can only understand because we believe they were primitive people building these monument structures all around the world. There is evidence around the world through myths and legends, to physical bodies of giants. There is a huge cover up for our origins and even purpose of life. There are huge gaps in our history, mainly covered over by religion and dictatorship empires controlling the knowledge handed down to the mass people.
There are structures much like Stonehenge around the world such as ‘Gilgal Rephaim’ where there are many myths and legends surrounding that.
You look at Gobekli Tepe to which was covered up by a civilization around 8,000 years ago, for which the structure has been dated over 12,000 years old. Coinciding with Robert Schoch’s explanation that the Giza pyramids are over 10,000 years old due to weathering on the sphinx. There are depictions of a hybrid interbreeding of some form of creature/alien in Gobekli monuments and there has only been about 20% of the site unearthed. There are even depictions for hands with 6 fingers/thumb.  The reason for the site is still unknown, yet there have been groups of people trying to thieve some of the stone artifacts.

Even in Easter Island the famous statues that people thoughts were just heads are in fact giant bodies that have been buried under ground, again for that seems an unknown reason.

I believe we need a world wide investigation and disclosure into our ancient past. What’s amazing is we allow governments to fund people to bomb these countries naming it for the good of mankind, yet these countries have so much history behind them. Now there is so much destruction we can’t investigate the history into what happened thousands of years ago in the time of the great flood and sinking of Atlantis. There are many independent researchers around the world yet many sites don’t allow access to independent investigations, or like China they are purposely covering up their own pyramids and any foreign investigators are banned from looking at these ancient sites. There are many corrupt governments around the world to which I believe know some of the secrets of our true history, to which leads me to believe that we were either hybrids of an alien race and the ancient stories of the annunaki and nephilim are true. This is why its so crucial that we investigate this further.

A giant mystery: 18 strange giant skeletons found in Wisconsin: Sons of god; Men of renown

“First reported in the 4 May 1912 issue of the New York Times the 18 skeletons found by the Peterson brothers on Lake Lawn Farm in southwest Wisconsin exhibited several strange and freakish features.

Their heights ranged between 7.6ft and 10 feet and their skulls “presumably those of men, are much larger than the heads of any race which inhabit America to-day.” They tend to have a double row of teeth, 6 fingers, 6 toes and like humans came in differant races. The teeth in the front of the jaw are regular molars. Heads usually found are elongated believed due to longer than normal life span.

” One must wonder how much can they lift if twice the size of a average human today? Are these the Giants the Bible & many other civilizations have in their history and painted on their walls. The Bible in Genisis 6:4 ” There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old men of renown. ” Now this is faulty logic to any scientist out there because I am using religous/cultural history to fill a hole in science”

Nephilim Giants – ALIEN HYBRIDS – Gilgal Rephaim, Circle Of Og King Of Bashan

The Mystery of Bosnia’s Ancient Pyramids

An amateur archaeologist says he’s discovered the world’s oldest pyramids in the Balkans. But many experts remain dubious

The Arthur legends of Stonehenge.
“According to Geoffrey, the rocks of Stonehenge were healing rocks, called the Giant’s dance, which Giants had brought from Africa to Ireland for their healing properties. The fifth-century king Aurelius Ambrosius wished to erect a memorial to 3,000 nobles slain in battle against the Saxons and buried at Salisbury, and at Merlin’s advice chose Stonehenge. The king sent Merlin, Uther Pendragon (Arthur’s father), and 15,000 knights, to remove it from Ireland, where it had been constructed on Mount Killaraus by the Giants. They slew 7,000 Irish but, as the knights tried to move the rocks with ropes and force, they failed. Then Merlin, using “gear” and skill, easily dismantled the stones and sent them over to Britain, where Stonehenge was dedicated. After it had been rebuilt near Amesbury, Geoffrey further narrates how first Ambrosius Aurelianus, then Uther Pendragon, and finally Constantine III, were buried inside the “Giants’ Ring of Stonehenge”. In many places in his Historia Regum Britanniae Geoffrey mixes British legend and his own imagination; it is intriguing that he connects Ambrosius Aurelianus with this prehistoric monument as there is place-name evidence to connect Ambrosius with nearby Amesbury.” Wiki.

Ancient Egyptian & Modern Christian Esoteric Alchemy (Danny Wilten)

Posted: March 7, 2013 in Illuminati, Media, Occult, Philosophy, Religion, Science
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This is an amazing complanation of how Christ is only a metaphorical symbolic representation of the duality of our physical and spiritual self. How the left and right brain can be unified together though understanding how our body works; unifying all elements of our metaphysical self. How alchemy (esoteric art) in churches and ancient depictions of Christ represent the pineal gland. The pineal gland being a physical instrument to unlock our external consciousness into alternate forms of reality. This is fascinating research which is under exposed and I share this with you to enlighten you.

Pope, Queen and Canadian Prime Minister charged with Crimes against Humanity 25 years Jail


Pope, Queen and Canadian Prime Minister charged with Crimes against Humanity 25 years Jail

Tuesday, March 5, 2013 No comments

( The final Verdict and Sentence of the International Common Law Court of Justice, in the Case of Genocide in Canada by Church and State – Includes the Court Order issued to the Defendants – Issued February 25, 2013

Note: The resignation of Pope Benedict XVI occurred on 28 February 2013 at 20:00 Vatican time (19:00 UTC). The resignation was first announced on the morning of 11 February 2013 by the Vatican. Benedict’s decision to step down as leader of the Catholic Church made him the first pope to relinquish the office since Pope Gregory XII in 1415 (who did so in order to end the Western Schism), and the first to do so on his own initiative since Pope Celestine V in 1294. The move was unexpected, as in the modern era popes have held the position from election until death. The Pope stated that the reason for his decision was his declining health due to old age. Source: wikipedia

Why the Pope Resigned – Arrest Warrant

BREAKING NEWS ‘The Downfall of the Vatican The Queen & The System’ — Kevin Annett from International Tribunal Into Crimes of Church and State to discuss today’s GUILTY Verdict!!!

Pope, Queen and Canadian Prime Minister found Guilty of Crimes against Humanity and Sentenced to Twenty Five Year Prison Terms

Court Orders them to Surrender by March 4 or face Citizens’ Arrests

Brussels: Pope Benedict will go to jail for twenty five years for his role in Crimes against Humanity, and Vatican wealth and property is to be seized, according to today’s historic verdict of the International Common Law Court of Justice.

The Brussels-based Court handed down a unanimous guilty verdict from its Citizen Jurors and ordered the citizens’ arrest of thirty Defendants commencing March 4 in a Court Order issued to them today.

The verdict read in part,

“We the Citizen Jury find that the Defendants in this case are guilty of the two indictments, that is, they are guilty of committing or aiding and abetting Crimes against Humanity, and of being part of an ongoing Criminal Conspiracy”

Odds to become the next pope – Ghana’s Peter Turkson listed as favorite

As Cardinals gather at the Vatican to elect the next pope, British bookmaker William Hill has posted odds on whom the successor to Benedict XVI will be. William Hill has a major presence in Nevada, but papal odds are not offered in the state. Ghanaian cardinal Peter Turkson is listed as the 11-to-4 favorite to replace Benedict, and the next pope being from an African country is offered at 13-to-8, the second choice in that betting pool behind odds-on favorite Italy at 4-to-5. The U.S. is 25-to-1. “The jostling will now start in earnest and with so many Italian Cardinals you have to think there is a great chance that we will see an Italian Pope later this month,” William Hill spokesman Rupert Adams said in a statement. Here’s a list of William Hill’s odds on who’ll become the 266th pope of the Catholic Church.

Was Pope Benedict fired by the Knights of Malta?

Click the link for the article.

If you have been following my other posts you many have found a trend that I believe that the Olympics has a huge powerful hidden agenda and I believe this event will be used as a mind control and possibly a false flag terrorist event. I’m also believe this could be used to channel various types of energies into the human consciousness, energies that has an agenda relating to religion and occult secret societies. Over the last week I’ve been trying to find the significance of the cauldron and the meaning and history of this ritualistic tool used in many religions and literature. I’m interested into why we use this tool for a world wide sporting event called the Olympics. We have had 70 days of taking the torch around the country, this brings forth a enormous about of spiritual energy with it. On one level we can presume that the torch is simply a tool to get the whole nation geared up for the Olympics, however is this was the case then the first use of the torch wouldn’t have been used as a propaganda technique for the Nazi’s in the 1936 Olympic games.
The torch is first brought to the country via virgin women in Greece, it is undoubtedly a symbolic ritual. If you have some knowledge of the meaning and history of the Olympic Cauldron, Flame and any other symbolism please tell me I’ll be more than happy to read through. If this is the first blog of mine you are reading please read my blog titled, The Hidden Meaning of the London Olympics 2012, also many other blogs relating to this subject.

This information below was literally copied from these sites:

King Arthur in Legend: The Holy Grail

The Holy GrailThe Tradition: The Holy Grail was a vessel used by Christ at the Last Supper. Given to his grand-uncle, St. Joseph of Arimathea, it was used by him to collect Christ’s blood and sweat while Joseph tended him on the Cross. After Christ’s death, Joseph was apparently imprisoned in a rock tomb similar to the one he had given for the body of his grand-nephew. Left to starve, he was sustained for several years by the power of the Grail which provided him with fresh food and drink every morning. Later, St. Joseph travelled to Britain with his family and several followers. He settled at Ynys Witrin (Glastonbury), but the Grail was taken to Corbenic where it was housed in a spectacular castle, guarded always by the Grail Kings, descendants of Joseph’s daughter, Anna (Enygeus) and her husband, Brons.

Centuries later, the location of the Great Castle of Corbenic became forgotten. At the Court of King Arthur, however, it was prophesied that the Grail would one day be rediscovered by a descendantof St. Joseph: the best knight in the land, the only man capable of sitting in the mysterious Siege Perilous. When such a man arrived in the form of Galahad, the son of Lancelot, along with a miraculous, though brief, vision of the Grail itself, a quest to find this holiest of relics began. Through many adventures and many years, the Knights of the Round Table crossed Britain from one end to another in their search. Perceval (Peredyr) discovered the castle in a land that was sickly like its spear-wounded King. When entertained by this “Fisher” or “Grail King”, however, he failed to ask of the grail and left empty-hand. Lancelot next reached Corbenic, but was prevented from entering because of he was an adulterer. Finally Galahad arrived. He was permitted entry to the Grail Chapel and allowed to gaze upon the great cup. His life became complete and together grail and man were lifted up to heaven.

The Names: The Holy Grail first appears as simply “a grail” in the works of Chrétien deTroyes. The word is probably derived from the Old French word graal meaning a “broad and capacious dish or salver”. Though usually thought of as being a cup or chalice, the Grail has indeed been variously described as a platter, dish, a cornucopia, horn of plenty or even a book or a stone.

The name of the Castle of Corbenic has competing explanations. Old Welsh Cors, meaning “Horn,” the Horn of Plenty as the Grail is sometimes described may have become confused with the Old French Corps, producing Corps-Benoit meaning “Holy Body,” ie. the Body of Christ. More likely, however, is the suggestion that Corbenic stems from Corbin-Vicus. The ending is almost certainly derived from the Latin for “Settlement,” while Corben is a French translation of the word Crow or Raven: Bran in Welsh. This was also a man’s name and, as Brons, he appears as St. Joseph’s son-in-law, one of the first Grail Kings. Hence Corbenic was “Bran’s Settlement”. It may be identical to the home of Lancelot’s father, Caer-Benwick.

Ancient Origins: The quest for a divine vessel was a popular theme in Arthurian legend long before medieval writers introduced the Holy Grail to British mythology. It appears in the Mabinogion tale of Culhwch and Olwen, but particularly well-known is the story of the Preiddeu Annwfn or “Spoils of the Otherworld” as recounted by Taliesin. Arthur and his warriors sail off to the Celtic Otherworld to capture the pearl-rimmed Cauldron of Annwfn: like the grail it was a giver of plenty, but also of prophecy. It was at last discovered at Caer-Siddi (or Wydyr), an island bound castle of glass, where it was guarded by nine divine maidens; but the ensuing perils were too much for even Arthur’s men. The mission was abandoned and only seven of their number returned home.

Celtic Cauldrons were used in ceremonial feasting as early as the Late Bronze Age. Ritual deposits in Llyn Fawr (Glamorgan) included such vessels, though the best known example is the Gundestrup Cauldron found in the peat bogs of Jutland (Denmark). Highly decorated with portraits of many Celtic deities, this vessel would once have held up to twenty-eight and a half gallons of liquid. These finds clearly point to the religious importance of cauldrons, as found in the Arthurian stories and even older Celtic mythological parallels.

The magic Otherworld vessel was the Cauldron of Ceridwen, the Celtic Goddess of Inspiration. She is remembered today in the archetypal hideous cauldron-stirring witch. She once set about brewing a drink of knowledge and wisdom for her hideous son, but her kitchen-boy, Gwion, accidentally tasted the concoction, preventing anyone else from benefitting from its affects. A great battle of wills ensued, for Gwion now held all the knowledge to escape the Goddess’ wrath. The two changed themselves into various animals in an attempt to outwit each other before Gwion was swallowed whole as a grain of wheat. He was eventually reborn as the great bard, Taliesin!

The cauldron then reappears in the story of Bran Fendigaid (the Blessed), not only as a vessel of knowledge and plenty, but also of rebirth. The great Celtic warrior God, Bran, obtained his life-giving vessel from a giantess (or thinly veiled Ceridwen) who had been expelled from a Lake in Ireland. The Emerald Isle here personifies the Celtic Otherworld. The magic vessel would restore to life the body of any dead warrior placed within it: a scene apparently depicted on the Gundestrup Cauldron. Bran’s sister marries the King of Ireland and they are given the cauldron as a wedding gift. However, when hostilities between the two countries break out, Bran travels across the ocean to regain this dangerous prize. He is eventually successful, but is wounded by a poisoned spear and, like Arthur, only seven of his men return home. The name, the castle (already discussed), the wound, the mystic vessel, the journey: Bran Fendigaid is clearly Brons, the Grail King, son-in-law of Joseph of Arimathea.

   The pentagram has long been associated with mystery and magic. It is
   the simplest form of star shape that can be drawn unicursally - with a
   single line - hence it is sometimes called the Endless Knot. Other
   names are the Goblin's Cross, the Pentalpha, the Witch's Foot, the
   Devil's Star and the Seal of Solomon (more correctly attributed to the

   It has long been believed to be a potent protection against evil and
   demons, hence a symbol of safety, and was sometimes worn as an amulet
   for happy homecoming. The old folk-song : "Green Grow the
   Rushes,O!" refers to the use of the pentagram above doors and
   windows in the line: "Five is the symbol at your door."

   The potency and associations of the pentagram have evolved throughout
   history. Today it is an ubiquitous symbol of neo-pagans with much
   depth of magickal and symbolic meaning.   

The Pentagram through History.

   The pentagram symbol today is ascribed many meanings and deep
   significance, though much of this is very recent. However, it has been
   used throughout history and in many contexts:
     * The earliest known use of the pentagram dates back to around
       3500BC at Ur of the Chaldees in Ancient Mesopotamia where it was
       symbolic of imperial power.
     * Amongst the Hebrews, the symbol was ascribed to Truth and to the
       five books of the Pentateuch. It is sometimes, incorrectly, called
       the Seal of Solomon (see Hexagram).
     * In Ancient Greece, it was called the Pentalpha, being
       geometrically composed of five A's. Unlike earlier civilizations,
       the Greeks did not generally attribute other symbolic meanings to
       the letters of their alphabet, but certain symbols became
       connected with Greek letter shapes or positions (eg Gammadion,
     * To the Gnostics, the pentagram was the 'Blazing Star'.
     * For the Druids, it was a symbol of Godhead.
     * In Egypt, it was a symbol of the 'underground womb'.
     * The Pagan Celts ascribed the pentagram to the underground goddess
     * Medieval Christians attributed the pentagram to the Five Wounds of
     * The Christian Emperor Constantine I used the pentagram, together
       with the chi-rho symbol in his seal and amulet. 

     * In the legend of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the pentagram
       was Sir Gawain's glyph, inscribed in gold on his shield,
       symbolizing the five knightly virtues.
     * In Medieval times, the 'Endless Knot' was a symbol of Truth and
       was a protection against demons. It was used as personal
       protection and to guard windows and doors.
     * The pentagram with one point upwards symbolized summer; with two
       points upwards, it was a sign for winter.

          + During the long period of the Inquisition, the pentagram was
            seen to symbolize a Goat's Head. In the purge on witches, the
            horned god Pan became equated with the Devil (a Christian
            concept) and the pentagram, for the first time in history
            became a symbol of 'evil' and was called the Witch's Foot.

     * In the emergence of Hermeticism, graphical symbolism became very
       important. The concept of the microcosmic world of Man as
       analogous to the macrocosm, the greater universe of spirit and
       elemental matter is a part of traditional occult teaching in both
       western and eastern philosophies. "As above, so below."
       The pentagram, the 'Star of the Microcosm', symbolized Man within
       the microcosm, representing in analogy the Macrocosmic universe.

           The upright pentagram bears some resemblance to the
       shape of man with his legs and arms outstretched; indeed an
       illustration attributed to Agrippa or to Tycho Brae (1582)
       illustrates the similarity of proportion in this image, showing
       the five planets and the moon at the center point - the genitalia.
       There are other illustrations of the period by Robert Fludd and
       Leonardo da Vinci showing geometrical relationships of man to the

          + Later, the pentagram came to be symbolic of the relationship
            of the head to the four limbs and hence of the pure
            concentrated essence of anything (or the spirit) to the four
            traditional elements of matter. - [Quintessence]

     * In Freemasonry, Man as Microprosopus was associated with the
       five-pointed Seal of Solomon. The symbol was used, interlaced and
       upright for the sitting Master of the Lodge. The geometric
       properties and structure of the Endless Knot were appreciated and
       symbolically incorporated into the 72 degree angle of the
     * The women's branch of freemasonry uses the five pointed 'Eastern
       Star' as its emblem. Each point commemorates a heroine of biblical

          + No graphical illustration of any association of the pentagram
            with evil appears until the nineteenth century. Eliphas Levi
            illustrates the upright pentagram of microcosmic man beside
            an inverted pentagram with the goat's head of Baphomet.

       In ritual magick the sign has long been used as a ritual flourish
       of the athame to symbolize invoking or banishing in respect to
       elemental associations.

     * In the 1940's Gerald Gardner adopted the pentagram with two points
       upward as the sigil of second degree initiation in the newly
       emergent, neo-pagan rituals of witchcraft, later to become known
       as Wicca. The one-point upward pentagram together with the upright
       triangle symbolized third degree initiation.
     * The pentagram was also inscribed on the altar pentacle, it's
       points symbolizing the three aspects of the Goddess plus the two
       aspects of the God.
     * It was not until the late 1960's that the pentagram again became
       an amuletic symbol to be worn and has since then become firmly
       established as a common neo-pagan and Wiccan symbol, acquiring
       many aspects of mystique and associations that are today often
       considered to be ancient folk-lore!

   Nevertheless, the potency of a symbol has more to do with its
   associations and its commonality than with its antiquity and the
   pentagram today is ubiquitous amongst neo-pagans.

Symbolic Meanings of the Pentagram.

     * The number '5' has always been regarded as mystical and magical,
       yet essentially 'human'.
          + We have five fingers/toes on each limb extremity.
          + We commonly note five senses - sight, hearing, smell, touch
            and taste.
          + We perceive five stages or initiations in our lives - e.g..
            birth, adolescence, coitus, parenthood and death. (There are
            other numbers/ initiations/stages/attributions).
     * The number 5 is associated with Mars. It signifies severity,
       conflict and harmony through conflict.
     * In Christianity, five were the wounds of Christ on the cross.
     * There are five pillars of the Muslim faith and five daily times of
     * Five were the virtues of the medieval knight - generosity,
       courtesy, chastity, chivalry and piety as symbolized in the
       pentagram device of Sir Gawain.
     * The Wiccan Kiss is Fivefold - feet, knees, womb, breasts, lips -
       Blessed be.

   The number 5 is prime. The simplest star - the pentagram- requires
   five lines to draw and it is unicursal; it is a continuous loop.

   Expressing the saying "Every man and every woman is a star",
   we can juxtapose Man on a pentagram with head and four limbs at the
   points and the genitalia exactly central. This is Man in microcosm,
   symbolizing our place in the Macrocosm or universe and the
   Hermetic/Tantric philosophy of associativity - "As above, so below". 

   The geometric proportions of the regular pentagram are those of the
   Golden Section.
     * The Golden Proportion is one beloved of artists since Renaissance
       times, being those of a rectangle considered most pleasing in
       proportion. Here, the ratio of the lengths of the two sides is
       equal to the ratio of the longer side to the sum of the two sides.
       Or :
       a/b = b/a+b = a+b/a+2b = a+2b/2a+3b = 2a+3b/3a+5b ....etc.
     * If a square is added to the long side of a golden rectangle, a
       larger golden rectangle is formed. Continuing this progression
       forms the basis for a nautilus spiral. 
     * The ratio of the distance between two points of a pentagram to its
       total width is in the golden proportion, as is the ratio of the
       height above the horizontal bar to that below, as is the ratio of
       a central part of a line to the outer part.
     * This ratio forms the foundation of the Fibonacci series of numbers
       1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144, etc where each number is formed by
       adding the previous two numbers.
     * The Fibonacci series is much found in nature in the pattern
       arrangement of flower heads and leaves and many flower heads and
       fruits themselves exhibit a fivefold symmetry.   

     * The pentagram has long been believed to be a potent protection
       against evil, a symbol of conflict that shields the wearer and the
     * The pentagram has five spiked wards and a womb shaped defensive,
       protective pentagon at the center.
     * There are five elements, four of matter (earth, air, fire and
       water) and THE quintessential - spirit. These may be arrayed
       around the pentagrams points.
          + The word 'quintessential' derives from this fifth element -
            the spirit.
     * Single point upwards signifies the spirit ruling matter (mind
       ruling limbs); is a symbol of rightness. With two points up and
       one (spirit) downwards, subservient, the emphasis is on the carnal
       nature of Man.
     * Tracing a path around the pentagram, the elements are placed in
       order of density - spirit (or aether). fire, air, water, earth.
       Earth and fire are basal, fixed; air and water are free, flowing.
     * These point attributions are used in ritually inscribing, as a
       flourish of the hands or the athame, different forms of pentagram
       for invoking or banishing (grounding) each of the elementals
       according to the nature of the ritual. The line traces as
       illustrated for earth (the last stroke is optional).

   Another way of seeing this path is as Man's spiritual journey through
   evolution. The spark of Life descending from God, the divine source of
   life to the simplest embryonic form (earth), rising to flow (water -
   air) on our plane of existence (compare with the intonation of the AUM
   mantra), then again descending to the fire of purification before
   again rising as a divine spark to find again his spiritual source.

     * The pentagram may be shown as an interlaced line symbolic of the
       web-weaving power of magick. The descending spirit-earth line may
       pass under (male) or over (female) the water-air line to give two
       slightly differing forms.
     * A pentagram may be open, without a surrounding circle. This is the
       active form symbolizing an outgoing of oneself, prepared for
       conflict, aware, active. (One wearing an open pentagram must be
       physically aware of the danger of sharp points sticking in their
       skin from time to time !)
     * A circle around a pentagram contains and protects. It is the
       passive form implying spiritual containment of the magic circle.
       The circle also represents eternity and infinity.

    Inverted Pentagram
     * The pentagram may be inverted with one point down. The implication
       is of spirit subservient to matter, of man subservient to his
       carnal desires.
     * The inverted pentagram has come to be seen by many pagans as
       representing the dark side and it is abhorred as an evil symbol.
       Fundamental Christians, indeed, see any form of pentagram as such.
     * However, these are recent developments and the inverted pentagram
       is the symbol of Gardnerian second degree initiation, representing
       the need of the witch to learn to face the darkness within so that
       it may not later rise up to take control.

     * The center of a pentagram implies a sixth formative element -
       love/will which controls from within, ruling matter and spirit by
       Will and the controlled magickal direction of sexual energies.
       This is another lesson of initiation.   

   In physical form, the pentagram may be worn as an amulet - as
   jewelry - pendant, ring, earrings, buckle, etc.... (lionel pepper) 

 - The earliest recorded use of the pentagram as a mystical symbol was by
   the Gnostics, who called it the Blazing Star.  It was also considered by
   Christians during the middle ages to be a symbol of the Five Wounds of
   Christ, and used as a protective glyph, generally as a variation on the
   Seal of Solomon (a Star of David within a circle).

 - The association of the pentagram with non-Christian belief, and its
   modern "elemental" analysis, were evidently introduced during the
   revival of occultism in the 17th and 18th centuries.  The Masons and
   similar groups such as the OTO took it up--for example, A.E. Waite is
   the person who introduced the symbol into the Tarot deck, replacing
   the traditional suit of Coins.

 - The use of the "inverted" pentagram to denote evil is a quite recent
   usage, and first appears in the works of Eliphas Levi.  He is also the
   source of the "goat's head" glyph.  Before this, neither orientation
   had evil connotations per se.

 - The modern pagan movement picked up the pentagram as part of a general
   borrowing from earlier "occult" usage, and Wicca in particular has
   taken it up as an explicit denotational symbol, similar to the
   cross, the Thor's hammer, and so on.

Amanda Walker

According to my own research so far:

The categorization of the "inverted" (one-point-down) pentagram as
"evil" vs.  the "upright" (one-point-up) pentagram as "good"
originates in the writings of Eliphas Levi in the 19th Century, most
notably the works "The History of Magic" and "Doctrine and Ritual of
Transcendental Magic."  He is also the originator of the now-infamous
goat's head glyph.  Eliphas Levi (actually the pen name of Alphonse
Louis Constant, a French Catholic deacon) was one of a number of
writers who constituted a reaction against 18th century rationalism.
His works have had a lasting effect on French magical traditions, and
were instrumental in the development of the Tarot as a serious tool of
Hermetic magic, despite its humble beginnings in Gypsy fortune-telling.

Levi was the first Hermetic writer to assign an elemental (or perhaps
more accurately, alchemical) meaning to the pentagram, which before
him had been used principally as a protective glyph denoting the five
wounds of Christ (and as such, occurs in both orientations in Gothic
cathedrals and cloisters all across Europe)).

Now, I would be more than interested to hear about evidence that
contradicts the derivation I give above; however, I have yet to come
across any "evil" connotations of the pentagram, or the orientation
thereof, that predate Eliphas Levi (who lived from 1810-1875).

This is not to say that his analysis is nonsense--far otherwise, in
fact.  If you apply his elemental attributions to the points of the
figure, the orientation does indeed profoundly affect the resulting
connotations.  However, it is a mistake to believe that this
interpretation is any more "traditional" than 150 or so years, or for
that matter particularly pagan.  It has, however, been picked up by
modern paganism, and has been (comparatively speaking) neglected by
modern hermeticism, which has focused primarily on the Tarot and the

Amanda Walker

Amanda Walker ( writes:

|Eliphas Levi is the earliest source I have yet found in European
|esotericism which gives the points of the star an elemental attribution

This was probably derived from Tycho Brahe's _Calendarium Naturale
Magicum Perpetuum..._, the ancestor of _Liber 777_ and many other works
of that sort.  Although the Calendarium does not show a pentagram
marked with the elements, the row "Quinarius denari ..." shows all
the details: a pentagram with human body imposed, Hebrew for YHSVH,
and the elements associated.  That's 1582 e.v.  Other, later sources
also have the material.  Looking to either the _Picatrix_ or the
writings of Petro de Abano might turn up earlier European usage. (Bill Heidrick)

In the book Symbols of t Prehistoric Mesopotamia by Beatrice Laura Goff , the
pentagram is shown and related to the Uruk (Biblical)Eriech)period of
Mesopotamian civilization (3500 B.C>.E.).  This sign is located on potsherds
in the location of Uruk (near the mouth of the Gulf), and is in the company of
signs relating to the beginning of written language.  In the book Symbols of
the Gods o in Mesopotamian Art by E.Douglas Van Buren, we find the Pentagram
belonging to the archaic period UrukIV, and more frequently on Jemdet
Nasr(3100-2900B.C>.E.) and Proto-Elamite tablets (3000-2500B.C.E.).  The title
suggested for the sign is revealing, UB , 'explained as "the very sign used in
the royal inscriptions to designate, in a somewhat obscuretitle, a power
extending to the 'four corners of the world''.  These points are the four
corners of the compass. (Frater ABZU)

To say "the pentagram was considered an evil symbol by the Christians" is
a little ... well, general.

I haven't searched the whole corpus of Christian literature, and tallied
up all the mentions of pentagrams-good and pentagrams-bad, but I would
like to point out that (a) the pentagram occurs in "Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight," and not as an evil symbol; (b) the pentagram was often regarded
as emblematic of the Five Wounds of Christ; and (c) the pentagram was
not an evil symbol for Pythagoreans, and there was a strong current
of admiration, in Christian tradition (though not a unanimous one), for
"noble pagans" -- Pythagoras, Plato, various Stoics, Plotinus, and so
on.  A good example of the ambivalence in Christian tradition toward
writers and thinkers is Dante's treatment of Virgil.

Can anyone come up with a specific text originating from the first
thousand years of Christianity denouncing the pentagram as an innately
evil symbol?  I wouldn't be surprised, myself, if the first occurrence
of such texts was some time within the past two centuries.  Or five


The pentagram was used early on by the Xian church (particularly in the 
East).  Their use was, of course, point-up.

The inverted cross was also used by the Xians.  It is known in 
traditional mythology as St. Peter's cross.  Peter did not believe he was 
worthy enough to die in the same way that Jesus had, so he begged to 
crucified upside-down.  (Or so the legend goes.) (VonDraco)

There is, of course, the "standard" pagan reply:  the five points 
represent the five elements.  It is "positive" if it is point-up because 
it represents the mastery of mind/spirit over mere matter.  It is 
"negative" if worn point down because spirit is immersed in or ruled by 
the physical rather than mental plane.  (CUE: End of standard reply.)

Now for some other possibilities that are somewhat less standard.  The 
five stages of humanity (or the five stages of life, if you prefer) are 
represented.  Speaking purely in terms of age, there are: Babyhood, 
Adolescence, Adulthood, Middle Age, and Old Age.  In terms of life 
occurrences, there are: Birth, Initiation, Love, Repose, and Death.

In Egypt the five-pointed star represented the underground womb.  To the 
pagan Celts, the pentagram was particularly associated with Morrigan, the 
underground goddess.

To Hermetic magicians (and many others now), the five-pointed star 
represented Man in the Microcosm, with his head at the top, hands out to 
the sides, and legs below.  His genitalia were in the center of the 

To Christians (yes, they managed to get a hold of this symbol, too) the 
pentagram represented the five wounds of Christ at the crucifixion.

In ancient Greece, the Pythagoreans called this symbol the Pentalpha, 
since it is five capital 'A' figures interlaced.

As for the point-down pentagram being "evil", there are a couple of 
different answers to that.  Yes, modern culture has led to the popular 
notion that this is an evil symbol.  However, It is also a representative 
of the Horned God.  Yes, it looks like a goat's head.  The Horned God's 
most common five forms are represented by the points: human, goat, ram, 
stag and bull.

Given the Christian propensity to turn the Horned God into the Devil, is 
it any wonder that this seems to be associated with the Christian 

I understand that this symbol also has some Qabalistic significance, but 
I am pitifully ignorant of the ways of the Qabala.  Perhaps someone 
else could enlighten you about that part of it.

Another important thing to remember is that the pentagram is a 
unicursal figure.  That is, it can be drawn without lifting pen/cil from 
paper.  It also means that each of the five (or more) things that are 
represented are *irrevocably* connected to one another, unless the line 
is broken.  No one thing is any stronger or better than the other - they 
are all dependent upon one another.

Jencina May Butler <jencina@gladstone>

Here are two books you might enjoy reading, or just looking through:
Rudolf Koch's THE BOOK OF SIGNS, 1930, reprinted by Dover since 1955;
Clarence P. Hornung, HANDBOOK OF DESIGNS AND DEVICES, 1932, reprinted
by Dover since 1946.  (Dover Books has many beautiful books on design.)

Koch, re PENTAGRAM:  "The pentagram, a five-pointed star drawn with one
stroke of the pen:  this sign belongs, as do many others depicted here,
to the most primitive of mankind, and is certainly much older than
written characters.  Signs of this kind are quite the most ancient
human documents we possess.  The pentagram has had several different
significations at different times in the history of man.  The
Pythagoreans called it the pentalpha, and the Celtic priests the
witch's foot.  It is also Solomon's seal, known in the Middle Ages
as the goblin's cross.  It also represents the five senses; the male
and female principles are also conveyed by the arrangement of the
five points.  Amongst the druids it was the sign of Godhead, and to
the Jews it signified the five Mosaic Books.  This sign was also
popularly believed to be a protection against demons, and, by analogy,
a symbol of safety.  It is believed too to be the emblem of happy
homecoming, whence its employment as an amulet.  In ancient times
it was a magic charm amongst the people of Babylon."

Hornung, re PENTAGRAM:  "The five-pointed star...  As a continuous
interlacement,... it is called the pentacle, or pentagram, and becomes
an important element in the history of magic and witchcraft, with many
mystic interpretations.  It is an ingenious development used in ancient
times by the Pythagoreans and others as the pentalpha, an emblem of
perfection.  This sign was also regarded as a protective fetish, and
was frequently worn as an amulet."

Raven <>

The pentagram has meant many things to many different people/groups thoughout
history, including strangely enough within the Catholic church itself,
during various parts of the middle ages it was seen as a symbol of truth,
you can find indications of this in some Arthurian legends (i don't recall
the details, however one of the knights in one of the accounts was supposed
to have a shield with the symbol). (ranger) 

Gawain, in the medieval verse-tale SIR GAWAIN AND THE GREEN KNIGHT.

I strongly recommend J.R.R. Tolkien's wonderful translation,
which retains much of the Old English alliterative form.

Stanzas 27-28:

     Then they brought him his blazon that was of brilliant gules
     with the pentangle depicted in pure hue of gold.
     By the baldric he caught it and about his neck cast it:
     right well and worthily it went with that knight.
     And why the pentangle is proper to that prince so noble
     I intend now to tell you, though it may tarry my story.
     It is a sign that Solomon once set on a time
     to betoken Troth, as it is entitled to do;
     for it is a figure that in it five points holdeth,
     and each line overlaps and is linked with another,
     and every way it is endless; and the English, I hear,
     everywhere name it the Endless Knot.
     So it suits well this knight and his unsullied arms;
     for ever faithful in five points, and five times under each,
     Gawain as good was acknowledged and as gold refine'd,
     devoid of every vice and with virtues adorned.
                   So there
              the pentangle painted new
              he on shield and coat did wear
              as one of word most true
              and knight of bearing fair.

     First faultless was he found in his five senses,
     and next in his five fingers he failed at no time,
     and firmly on the Five Wounds all his faith was set
     that Christ received on the cross, as the Creed tells us;
     and wherever the brave man into battle was come,
     on this beyond all things was his earnest thought:
     that ever from the Five Joys all his valour he gained
     that to Heaven's courteous Queen once came from her Child.
     For which cause the knight had in comely wise
     on the inner side of his shield her image depainted,
     that when he cast his eyes thither his courage never failed.
     The fifth five that was used, as I find, by this knight
     was free-giving and friendliness first before all,
     and chastity and chivalry ever changeless and straight,
     and piety surpassing all points:  these perfect five
     were hasped upon him harder than on any man else.
     Now these five series, in sooth, were fastened on this knight,
     and each was knit with another and had no ending,
     but were fixed at five points that failed not at all,
     coincided in no line nor sundered either,
     not ending in any angle anywhere, as I discover,
     wherever the process was put in play or passed to an end.
     Therefore on his shining shield was shaped now this knot,
     royally with red gules upon red gold set:
     this is the pure pentangle as people of learning
                   have taught.
              Now Gawain in brave array
              his lance at last hath caught.
              He gave them all good day
              for evermore as he thought.

-- Raven (JSingle@Music.Lib.MATC.Edu).  [All standard disclaimers apply]
------------------------------------- Great Britain, the inverted pentagram is the sign of a second level 
Wiccan Student in the Gardnerian Tradition. Because of the fear frenzy of 
the Fundamentalists, in  this country another symbol is used. And the 
symbols may be very different in different parts of the world as to how 
to identify either a Satanist or a second level Gardnerian Student. 

...the symbol is a reminder to face the evil/dark and nastiness within or 
it will rise up and control you. (Susan Profit)

Well, according to my tradition, four of the points represent the 
elements of Earth, Air, Fire & Water.  The fifth point represents the 
spiritual.  Now, reference to up or down...Up is representative of the 
higher spiritual plane, down is representative of inner spirituality.

...the pentagram as a symbol for Satanism was a figment of some 
fundies' collective imaginations then adopted by Satanists.  To lend 
further credence, it was pointed out that a point-down pentagram looked 
a little like a goat's head, said to be a Satanic creature.  Actually, 
this reference first showed up centuries ago when the Roman Catholic 
Church attempted to slander Pan and His followers. (DREAM WEAVER)

Joseph of Aramathia came to the Isle of angels after the crucifixion of
Christ. There are those who believe that Jesus himself came to Britain and
was taught by the Druids during his early adulthood.

Regardless the people of Britain saw remarkable religious similarities 
between their own beliefs and those of the EARLY Christians. There is proof 
that the British practiced both religions side by side.

Later when the Roman church was in ascendancy they started to subvert other
religious practices. For some reason, whether to show displeasure of Rome,
or whether the Church itself initiated the practice, those who where against
the church inverted their crosses and since the Pentagram was worn with it it 
also was inverted. (Allan M Rennie)

There are a lot of pagans out here that use an inverted pentagram as a 
banishing/grounding pentagram that aren't involved in Satanism at all.

Both the upright and inverted pentagram are tools and nothing more.  They
are symbols of a way that ritual and magick and energy are moved.  How 
each person or group of people chooses to *use* such symbols is the key
issue.  If you use an inverted pentagram for "Black Magic"  (Ghod how I
hate that term.  Especially since Black Magick for me designates only
those workings done in the dark phase of the moon.) then it is the energy
that you focus and the direction that *you* choose that makes them "evil"
in symbology.  

Hawke (NightStalker)

The pentagram itself is an extremely ancient symbol, with various forms
and significances in different cultures -- much like the cross.

The magical pentagram as used in a ritual which projects it to the four
quarters is a relatively recent innovation, apparently no older than
the Golden Dawn (or possibly Eliphas Levi.)  The ritual authors derived
the symbol from older sources, probably including the Pythagoreans, and
built the ritual from it and other materials, such as a Jewish night
prayer.  This is the form in which the pentagram is used by modern
paganism, which employs numerous variations on the Golden Dawn
pentagram ritual as the basic framework for circle work.

I heard this symbol is used in a "spiritual communications" in certain 
forms of Satan worship.  The person sits in the middle of the circle 
while "praying" to the spirits who can then "sit" on each of the five 
points of the "star".  

Todd Strickland ( 

...The inverted pentagram has always represented a variety of things,
as do the upright and skew pentagrams.  Aside from prudery in symbolism
apparently originating in the 19th century, the abuse of this symbol
by associating it with evil or "Devil Worship", in the Christian sense,
is an act of religious intolerance on a level with racism in Nazi
Germany.  Use of the inverted pentagram by non-Christian Satanists is
harmless, no different from use of the swastika by the Theosophical
Society.  Hate groups have attempted to use the inverted and other
orientations of the pentagram to engage authorities in the suppression
of non-Christian religious organizations, much as the Proctor and Gamble
logo has been associated with irrelevant interpretations by certain
Christian groups selling competitive products door-to door.
   Accordingly, the pentagram in its various orientations is an appropriate
symbol of solidarity with victims of bigotry.  Wear it proudly and
display it in your windows.  If that had been done with the Hexagram
in 1930's Germany, 9 million Jews, Gypsies and Masons might have been
saved from untimely and horrible death.  Avoidance of this symbol may
result in: A. tacit endorsement of abuse of minorities for financial and
other gain.  B. encouragement of children to adopt this symbol as a
justification for destructive behavior.

93 93/93 (Bill Heidrick)

1) Many Satanists don't wear an inverted cross. They have no use for
that symbol, which has nothing whatsoever to do with our religion or

2) The Pentagram has no "right side up" or down orientation. It's an
almost circular symbol, which can be used one-point-up, one-point-
down, one-point-right, one-point-left, or askew. There are some Pagan
and Wiccan folk who use what you call the "inverted" pentagram as a
symbol of their initiation. There are some Satanists who use the
pentagram in other ways than what you call "inverted." 

My personal use is one-point-down, for reasons based in the discussion
of symbolism in the Temple of Set's _Crystal Tablet. It has nothing to
do with any Pagan, Wicca, or Christian use of a similar symbol. (Balanone)

Supposedly, a "good" pentagram has only one point up, and the "inverted"
pentagram, which is associated with "evil" devils and demons (!) is
hated. "White" witches are quick to point out that the pentagrams they
wear around their necks are not "evil" etc, and even Anton LaVey
(founder, Church of Satan) says that he uses the two point up pentagram
to represent man's carnal (vs "spiritual" nature), which is basically
correct. What he does not mention is that the two point up pentagram is
older and much more common. The one point up pentagram was basically
something that came along with the "Wicca" movement via Gerald Gardner et
al; in other words, it is recent and invented by people born and raised
Christian. Fact. Well, looking back through historical stuff, the theme
of 5 things is extremely common and is associated with the Goddess (ref.
_The White Goddess_ by Robert Graves: well known book). Looking through
certain art, you can also find a pentagram, which is always 2 points up.
You can go to your library and get any book of Tantrik art to see this.
Freemasons use it to mean "man", which is also easily verifiable. The
point is, the pentagram goes way back and is common, perhaps because the
image and general shape is common in nature: many animal faces have
this shape and plants do as well, but only if it has 2 points up. Both of
the referenced mystical groups are older than the "white witches" and the
movement in general. This is something you should be able to research and
see for yourself pretty easily. I said, the two easiest groups that use this and are known to 
be old, etc, are the Freemasons and Tantriks, which are groups not 
historically related and have different origins and traditions, but both 
use a two-point up pentagram. The Freemasons call it the Eastern Star, 
and you can probably get a graphic file of this off of the internet (so 
you don't even have to go to the library). Check "Alt.Freemasonry" (I 
think it is) and maybe someone can give you pointers; you can also see on 
that group Freemasons being accused of using the "devil's sign", which 
is funny, since Freemasons have been along much longer than the Church of 
Satan! For the Tantrik stuff, most any art history book about it will 
have at least one pentagram in there: I have seen them either in "symbols 
relating cosmos" pictures or chakra diagrams. Since most books draw on 
basically the same materials, I cannot recommend a specific one. Just 
look in the computer under "Tantrik art" or "art Tantrik".

Brendan <>

The Pentagram business is a *convention*, not an absolute. But it's been
intentionally built up and reinforced over the last 20-30 years as the
American Wiccan/NeoPagan movement has evolved. Most people are taught that
the upright star represents the human "Spirit": an individual person in
charge of their own destiny, and unifying the other Four Elements within
him/herself. So far, so good, right? 

In the late 1960's, a whole bunch of books on Witchcraft, Magick, and
Occultism came out. There was a big "fad" thing happening there for
awhile, probably due to the influence of the Counterculture. Enquiring
minds wanted to know: Is there magic(k)? Does it work? How can I do it?
Will I go to Hell for doing it? And suddenly there were all these books. 

In this era, Anton LaVey started the Church of Satan and published "The
Satanic Bible". Obviously his Church needed a logo, and so he turned to
the works of Eliphas Levi, the 19th-century French Occultist. Levi lived
in a repressive time and place (he was actually a Catholic priest) and got
his writings past the censors by making a big, bold distinction between
Good and Evil. It is Levi's famous engraving of "Baphomet" which became
the Official Satanist Logo: modified and somewhat updated to include the
Inverted Pentagram emphasizing the Horns of Satan. 

But in Wica, as founded by Gerald Gardner, the Inverted Pentagram was used
as a symbol of the Second Degree, which treats of the Horned One and his
powers of Transformation: Death, Love, and Rebirth. So to Witches (at
least from 1949 on) it had a different, more "neutral" meaning. In English
practice it is still used as the Second-Degree symbol. (Perhaps in certain
ways the Brits tend to be more sensible and less superstitious than we,

But not here in the USA, oh no! As soon as the inverted-Pentagram Satanic
Logo got identified in the public mind with Evil Black Magic(k), those
anxious to distinguish Wicca from Satanism made it quite plain that "we" 
only use the Upright Star. I can't blame the American Craft for this: it 
was an expedient demanded by the time. (If you think we got "clueless 
newbies" now, you should have seen what was out there then!)

And so the Upright Pentagram has gone down, over time (but not that much
time, really) as the symbol for those whose magic(k) is "Positive" (Good)
not "Negative" (Baaaad). As for the Inverse Pentagram -- just try wearing
one to a party, especially if you're fifteen years old -- and see how much
attention you get! "Eeevil" still equals "Sexy and Dangerous" in our
culture; add the "I *am* a Master Warlock" spin and you may *actually get
laid*! So you can understand why the Inverse Pentagram is a big boon to
lonely, horny people still in the "Workin' the Bar 101" phase of
development. (Anton LaVey certainly did!)

Witches are supposed to be, IMHO, more subtle than that. If you appreciate
the distinction between raw fish and sushi you probably giggle at people
who wear Inverse Pentagrams. But don't get in their face with it -- for
most of them it's legitimate self-assertion, given a culture in which they
must wrestle with the Xtian notion that it's "evil" to Just Be Themselves.
Sooner or later they may discover more subtle aspects of Magic(k) -- or
maybe not, if it really works for them. Meanwhile a strongly-projected (if
unspoken) "that's *tacky!*" will usually take care of the "problem". 

B*B, (Balachandra)

...You're confused. It's the *upright* 
Pentacle that is the "Sign of Man", and it's alchemical symbology, not 
Masonic. Leonardo de Vinci uses it in his very famous drawing of a Man 
with his arms and legs outstretched, with the upright Pentacle behind him 
& framing him. Just my $.02. (Walter Five)

Leonardo's famous sketch does *not* contain a pentagram of any description. 
Check an art history book, or if you have Web access, the upper half of 
the picture may be found at as an inline gif.

The figure is drawn on a superimposed square and circle, *not* a pentagram.

"A beautiful theory, callously murdered by cold, unfeeling facts." (Peter Trei)

Be it one or two points up, the position is really irrelevant.  In both 
Pagan/Wiccan and Satanist traditions it depends on which way that the 
Pentagram is drawn.  If being used for the positive or "gathering" means, 
it is traditionally drawn clockwise.  If being used to negate or 
"diminish", it is drawn counterclockwise.   However, the fact that one 
way is "evil" while the other is not is up to one's own perception.  
Throughout the ages, many religious symbols have been used to serve 
one's own means and by that they tend to have been corrupted.

Blessed Be!! (Melusine)

More Star Stuff &c. (Long Post):

1. Freemasonry

In Masonic tradition, the upright interlaced Pentagram is sometimes used
to symbolize the sitting Master of the Lodge. This is an old tradition,
very popular in the 18th and 19th centuries, especially in English Lodges.
It has fallen into disuse here here in the US, possibly because of the
association of the Pentagram with Occultism. (Masons have enough trouble
with gratuitous prejudice without using a symbol popularly thought to be
a "negative" one.)

However, I have seen several antique Past Master's Jewels (presented by
the Lodge to the outgoing Master on his retirement from the East) in which
the Interlaced Pentagram is superimposed upon the Compasses, with the
traditional carved moonstone at its center. It may also be noted that a 
"hidden" aspect of the symbolic Pentagram exists in the 72o angle of the 
open Compasses as seen in Freemasonry's standard logo. This is intentional.

As for "Eastern Star": I am a member of the Order of Eastern Star, a
Masonic Women's Organization, (founded in the 1860's) whose symbol is the
five-pointed Star (*not* the Interlaced Pentagram).  Each Star Point
represents a heroine of Biblical lore (three from the Old Testament and
two from the New) who exemplifies a Feminine Mystery. For example, I sit
at the Point of Esther (aka Ishtar, Isis, Astarte) and represent Her 
-- quite a treat for a Goddess-worshipper like me.

In most State Jurisdictions, the "Eastern Star" is seen with two points
up, something the National organization refuses to change despite what I
imagine can be rather nasty pressure from local Fundamentalist groups. In
New York State (where the O.E.S. was founded) however, our Star has
*always* been seen with one point upright. I don't know why the others
originally chose the reversed Star, but I'll ask someone from out-of-state
sometime and perhaps then be able to report on it. (Balachandra)

The version I know of the logic behind this goes:

Pentagram points=		Head(Spirit)

		L.ARM (Air)			R.ARM (Fire)

			L.Leg (Earth)	R.Leg (Water)

And is symbolic of the triumph of Mind over man/the elements. (good)

The Inverse pentagram being symbolic of the domination of the 
spirit/will/mind by the earthly forces, Lust,Greed,etc. (bad)

Therefore 'Whites' seeking to control their bodily urges wear the 'good' 
type. 'Blacks' glorifying and magnifying their bodily urges wear the 'bad' 

Crowley's view was that neither version was intrinsically good or bad but was 
merely a classic magical instance of an Aspect. Each should be used 
according to the object of the ritual/talisman or the forces being invoked.
Example: When invoking Elementals to actually DO work a base up point down 
should be used and when invoking Intelligences to answer questions, offer 
guidance etc. then a point up pentagram should be used. (Malcolm Grandis) 

The single-point-up pentagram in fact appears in the ancient verse about
Sir Gawaine and the Green Knight. Sir Gawaine carries a shield with a
pentagram emblazoned on it like a coat of arms. The poem states that 
the pentagram symbolizes, among other things, the five senses, the five
fingers, and the five Knightly Virtues (Courtesy, Chastity, Generosity,
Brotherly Love, and Pity -- interestingly, courage is not included). (Rosanna E. Tufts)

A weird thing about the five-pointed star: every ten years (I think?  Uh
oh, maybe that's wrong... anyway, every [insert time period here]) the
planet Venus traces a perfect pentagram across the sky when viewed from

The Pythagoreans used to wear it on their robes--none of them every really
told my *why*. (little o)

In article <>, (Captain Horatio Pugwash) wrote:

>    To the best of my knowledge, the pentagram was a shape
>discovered by Greek mathematicians.  It was significant
>because if a pentagram is drawn in a perfectly equiangular
>pentagon, two of the line segments it describes are in 
>the exact proportion of the Golden Rectangle, the Greek 
>shape of perfect aesthetic harmony.  It was revered by the
>Platonist cults that believed in the power of certain 
>shapes and numbers.  I would presume that superstitions 
>about it were disseminated by pagan Rome and became part
>of European folk tradition...

The Greeks may have (and probably did) derive the mathematical
formulae for inscribing a perfect pentagram, but the symbol itself
probably predates them.  I believe I've seen pictures of pentagrams
in African petroglyphs, for instance.  

It seems more likely to me that the Pythagorean rather than the
Platonic schools revered the symbol.  I recall no discussion of
mathematical formulae in Platonic literature - which doesn't mean it
doesn't exist, merely that it is overwhelmed in my memory by other,
mostly political philosophies. I believe that the Pythagoreans were
more apt to be regarded by other Greeks as cultists than were
students of Plato, but I'll admit that the impression is gleaned
more from Mary Renault than from contemporary sources.

And, for what it is worth, the early fathers of the Xian church
selected the pentagram to represent the Star of Bethlehem for a
reason:  it symbolizes the Pentagrammaton, YHVShH, Yehoveshah, which
was translated into Greek as Jesus.  Both the Tetragrammaton and the
Pentagrammaton appear to predate Kabalah, the earliest sources for
which are found, I believe, in twelfth or thirteenth century France
and Germany - but they do not predate the sources from which the
Kabalah was drawn.  That symbolizm *may* have been the reason
medieval Satanists are presumed to have inverted the pentagram,
though my reading suggests they preferred to invert the cross.

I always find it odd that xians sometimes claim that a symbol which
from the earliest years of their religion has represented their God
is really the symbol of His enemy. (Baird Stafford)

The points of the pentagram are viewed by many as follows:
top: Spirit, right top: Water, right bottom: Fire, left top: Air, 
Left bottom: Earth.
Most wear them to remind them to always have Spirit over the elements in
life.   Also Life, health, protection (especially against hostile
 Also a human being as a microcosm of the universe.
The points can represent the five senses, stages of life or states of
Hope this is of some help!  There is a lot of symbolism in a pentagram it
has had many names through the ages: Pentalpha, the Endless Knot, the
Pentacle of the Virgin, The Seal of the Microcosm, the Star of Knowledge,
the Pentacle of the Templars, and according to some, the Seal Of Solomon, 
Medieval churchman however, called it witch's funk or wizard's star.  It
has been used by Sumerians, Kabbalists, Celts, Egyptians, Christians and
Gypsies. (DAlexan466)

"Izabela Wysoka" <>:
> What is the EXACT meaning of the inverse pentagram? I know it is to
> symbolize a goat's head, but I guess, this is not all.

The so-called "inverse" pentagram (which can also be derived by rotating
it eighteen degrees) may have gotten its nasty reputation from its
Islamic application as a simple decoration.  One can find an example of
this on the cover of S.H. Nasr's _Islamic Ideals and Realities_, which
features a very ornate "inverse" pentagram with the Arabic script for
"Allah" in the center pentagon.  There was a time when Christians thought
Muhammad was the Antichrist, and anything with any Islamic connection was
considered "evil." (Kevin Bold/Fra:. Baraka)

This document is Copyright (c) 1998, authors cited.

All rights reserved.  Permission to distribute the collection is
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nagasiva, tyagi
tyagI@houseofkaos.Abyss.coM (I@AM)